People of European descent and of African descent who struggled for equal rights agreed that education, including higher education, was essential for black advancement. When white reformers in the 1830s considered ways for people of color to attain equal rights, they, like black reformers, almost always gravitated to uplift. The prejudice of their times, they thought, would disappear as African Americans acquired education and middle-class values. Sunday schools, evening schools, writing schools, and other schools for black children and occasionally for black adults began appearing to fill basic needs. This chapter provides in-depth analysis and description of the attempt to create an African American college in New Haven, Prudence Crandall's school in Canterbury, Connecticut, and the Noyes Academy in Canaan, New Hampshire. Each of these experiments began with optimism and idealism, and each failed because of white opposition and violence.
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