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The Handbook of Culture and Psychology$
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David Matsumoto and Hyisung C. Hwang

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190679743

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190679743.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 30 November 2020

Cold, Heat, Wealth, and Culture

Cold, Heat, Wealth, and Culture

(p.93) 4 Cold, Heat, Wealth, and Culture
The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Evert Van de Vliert

Dejun Tony Kong

Oxford University Press

This chapter entertains the question of how—or rather why—fundamental freedoms are unevenly distributed around the globe. We propose an explanation in terms of climatic cold and heat ranging from undemanding to demanding and economic wealth ranging from poor to rich. Fundamental freedoms appear to increase in a stepwise manner in populations faced with threatening (demanding, poor) to unthreatening (undemanding, poor) to unchallenging (undemanding, rich) to challenging (demanding, rich) places of residence. This ecological regularity applies to freedom from in-group–out-group discrimination, freedom from hierarchical discrimination, freedom from corruption, freedom from aggression, freedom to trust, and freedom to be creative. As an additional discovery, we find increases in cultural expressions of freedom away from the threatening places of residence around the equator toward the challenging places of residence at higher latitudes in both hemispheres. The observed ecological and latitudinal trends are generalizable across cultural freedoms, across space, and across time.

Keywords:   climato-economic, ecological threats, ecological challenges, geographic latitude, fundamental freedom, social discrimination, corruption, aggression, trust, creativity

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