The authors present an overview of methodological issues in comparative studies, which have their intellectual roots in experimental psychology. This is followed by an introduction of the key concepts of bias (unintended sources of score differences, such as differential social desirability) and equivalence (implications of bias for the comparability of scores across cultures). Crucial to the chapter, a taxonomy of bias (constructs, methods, and items as sources of bias) and equivalence (construct/configural, metric, and scalar equivalence) is described. The most frequently employed statistical procedures to address bias and equivalence are presented. In the past few decades, the focus in the preparation of instruments for cross-cultural studies has shifted from translations (with an emphasis on linguistic considerations) to adaptations (which set out to integrate linguistic and psychological considerations). Types of adaptations are described. Finally, possible future developments are presented, such as the integration of emic and etic procedures.
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