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The Handbook of Culture and Psychology$
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David Matsumoto and Hyisung C. Hwang

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190679743

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190679743.001.0001

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Gender and Culture

Gender and Culture

(p.235) 9 Gender and Culture
The Handbook of Culture and Psychology

Deborah L. Best

Angelica R. Puzio

Oxford University Press

Culture and gender are closely intertwined with biological factors creating predispositions for sex and gender development. However, sociocultural factors are critical determinants leading to gender differences in roles and behaviors that may be modest but culturally important. Culture has profound effects on gender-related behavior, values, identity, roles, and how these are regarded in various social contexts. Culture governs the socialization of children, the tasks children are taught, the roles adult men and women adopt, and the expectations that govern women’s and men’s attitudes and behaviors. Culture provides the context in which gender roles, identity, and stereotypes unfold as well as parameters regarding sexual behavior. Culture affects variation in gender-related behaviors between individuals within a cultural group as well as variation between cultures. Culture can maximize, minimize, or even eliminate gender differences in social behaviors and cognitions. Indeed, it is impossible to separate gender and culture.

Keywords:   gender roles, gender identity, gender stereotypes, masculinity, femininity, mate preferences, gender socialization, nurturance, aggression, gender division of labor

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