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Bulk Collection: Systematic Government Access to Private-Sector Data

Fred H. Cate and James X. Dempsey


In June 2013, Edward Snowden revealed a secret US government program that collected records on every phone call made in the country. Further disclosures followed, detailing mass surveillance by the UK as well. Journalists and policymakers soon began discussing large-scale programs in other countries. Over two years before the Snowden leaks began, Cate and Dempsey had started researching systematic collection. Leading an initiative sponsored by The Privacy Projects, they commissioned a series of country reports, asking national experts to uncover what they could about government demands that te ... More

Keywords: government surveillance, national security, privacy, human rights, oversight, international law, corporate responsibility

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2017 Print ISBN-13: 9780190685515
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2017 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190685515.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Fred H. Cate, editor
Vice President for Research, Indiana University; Distinguished Professor and C. Ben Dutton Professor of Law; Senior Fellow, Center for Applied Cybersecurity Research; Director, Center for Law, Ethics, and Applied Research in Health Information, Indiana University, Maurer School of Law

James X. Dempsey, editor
Executive Director, Berkeley Center for Law & Technology, University of California, Berkeley

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Part One Country Reports


1 Systematic Government Access to Private-Sector Data

Ira S. Rubinstein, Gregory T. Nojeim, and Ronald D. Lee*

Europe and the Middle East

The Americas

Asia and the Pacific

10 Systematic Government Access to Private-Sector Data in Australia

Dan Jerker B. Svantesson and Rebecca Azzopardi*

Part Two Governance and Oversight

17 Trust but Verify

Scott Charney*

19 Preventing the Police State

Sarah St.Vincent*

Part Three Conclusion

23 Recommendations for Government and Industry

James X. Dempsey and Fred H. Cate