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The Science of Diversity$
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Mona Sue Weissmark

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780190686345

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190686345.001.0001

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Diversity and Nations

Diversity and Nations

Chapter:
(p.309) 9 Diversity and Nations
Source:
The Science of Diversity
Author(s):

Mona Sue Weissmark

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190686345.003.0009

This chapter conceptualizes the nation and nationalism, placing them in context with issues of wealth and income inequality, immigration, xenophobia, and diversity. The term “nation” may be defined in several ways, but generally a nation refers to a distinct, usually geographically or regionally bound people. Likewise, depending on academic discipline, nationalism has varied definitions, though the concept generally refers to the emotions wrapped up in a shared national identity. There are two dichotomous types of nationalism: civic and ethnic. Civic nationalism was found in Western societies, where individuals are seen as belonging to a political community consisting of people with equal rights and duties. People in these societies unite around political precepts, values, and respect for institutions. Conversely, in countries where ethnic nationalism is the norm, citizens belong to an ethnic community based on blood ties. Although this dichotomous view has its share of critics, the notion that civic meanings of nationhood correlate with a positive attitude toward immigrants while ethnic-based ideas of the nation promote xenophobia still holds currency. Meanwhile, although there is little empirical research concerning factors that influence nationalist thinking, one study found poor citizens’ national pride rises as income inequality increases, especially in countries where there are many migrants in the lower class.

Keywords:   nation, nationalism, income inequality, immigration, xenophobia, diversity, civic nationalism, ethnic nationalism, nationhood, national identity

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