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The Chemistry of WineFrom Blossom to Beverage and Beyond$
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David R. Dalton

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190687199

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190687199.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 26 October 2021

The Roots of the Grape Vine

The Roots of the Grape Vine

6 (p.18) The Roots of the Grape Vine
The Chemistry of Wine

David R. Dalton

Oxford University Press

Aside from grafting onto already established rootstock or the development of roots from a planted cane (vide supra), root systems develop from the radicle in the plant’s seed. Both as roots begin to form from the cane, and as the sprouting seed coat opens in response to soil temperature, moisture, and genetic programming left in place when the seed formed, the roots begin to grow and interact with the rhizosphere. Similarly, signals received by rootstock where grafting has been effected also occur. The roots begin to bring moisture and food to produce and support the stem and, eventually, the leaves, flowers, and fruit. Heavily fruited plants such as grapes require additional support for the stems. In the roots, epidermal (surface) cells elongate and develop into root hairs. Beneath the epidermal cells it appears that the phloem cells which bring the starch bodies (amyloplasts) to the root tips and help direct which way “down” is, develop first. Then xylem elements develop in order to move the minerals into the system. Most of the minerals are absorbed through channels developing in the walls of the growing undifferentiated cells (the meristems). Because of concentration gradients (i.e., there is less on one side of a cell membrane than on the other), some minerals appear to be actively transported into the cells of the xylem (presumably through similar channels) in response to signals emanating from the plant. From the xylem cells, the minerals and water move upward into the apical meristem and get distributed to other regions. Interestingly, although most of the cells are derived from the same group of meristems which thus might be considered true stem cells, it is genetic programming which permits that differentiation. Thus, the derivatives of the meristems undergo transformation and develop into various cell types that perform the different functions (Figure 6.1). Relatively recently there has been an increased interest in what has been the largely unexplored biology of roots.

Keywords:   abscisic acid, concentration gradients, epidermal cells, hormones, jasmonic acid, meristems, phytohormones, rhizosphere, salicylic acid, vernalization

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