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The Chemistry of WineFrom Blossom to Beverage and Beyond$
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David R. Dalton

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190687199

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190687199.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 26 October 2021

A Selection of Grapes

A Selection of Grapes

14 (p.122) (p.123) A Selection of Grapes
The Chemistry of Wine

David R. Dalton

Oxford University Press

This undistinguished, productive, drought resistant, vigorous white grape, Airén, from the La Mancha region of Spain, was said to be the most widely planted grape in the world. In part the justification for this claim relies upon the observation that it is planted at a very low density! Except for its use in blending to make other wines “lighter,” it has not found wide acceptance. In part, it appears that its lack of popularity is the result of what is reported to be a mild, neutral flavor, and advertising has not pushed wines produced from it to the fore. Although it is now common to attempt to analyze the headspace (or ullage) in bottled wine (as well as the wine itself) by chromatographic and mass spectrometric techniques it is less common to find that the grapes (skin, must, and seeds) are also subjected to such analysis. Nonetheless, the phenolic composition of V. vinifera var Airén was subjected to just such analysis during ripening from véraison to “technological” maturity (i.e., maturity which might actually be earlier than harvest, the latter being the decision of the viticulturist and vintner). The analysis of the ethyl ether extract of macerated skins, seeds, and accumulated solids (the pomace) was undertaken. Procyanidins and anthocyanins which would (the authors claim) interfere with subsequent analysis would not move into the ether phase. It was also found (using controls) that other highly polar materials (e.g., carboxylic acids) were only poorly extracted from the macerated skins and seeds. The isolated compounds and some information about their sources are provided in Figures 14.1 and 14.2. The analysis of the seeds, skin, and must did lead to the conclusion that “the maximum concentrations of benzoic and cinnamic acids and aldehydes and flavonol aglycones and glycosides at the end of the ripening period did not coincide with the minimum concentrations of the flavan-3-ols and hydroxycinnamic tartaric esters.” Depending upon what was sought, this information might thus affect decisions concerning the harvest date.

Keywords:   Airén grape, Bandol AOC, Cinsaut, Dichlofluanid, Gewürztraminer, Lobesia botrana, Mourvèdre, Nebbiolo, Perfumed Traminer, Tempranillo

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