The concluding chapter defends Adam Smith from Jonathan Israel’s criticism (and misrepresentation). Israel treats Smith as belonging to the moderate Enlightenment. While this chapter is agnostic about the moderate vs radical Enlightenment distinction, it suggests that Adam Smith offers enduring criticisms of applying Radical thought to political affairs. By contrast, this chapter treats Adam Smith as an exemplary philosopher not in terms of the doctrines defended, but rather as a model, who shows how philosophers of each generation need to develop normative and political ideals in light of other systematic commitments that may guide policy in a humane and responsible fashion.
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