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The Only Constant is ChangeTechnology, Political Communication, and Innovation Over Time$
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Ben Epstein

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190698980

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: April 2018

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190698980.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 October 2021

The Social and Technological History of Political Communication Change

The Social and Technological History of Political Communication Change

(p.25) 2 The Social and Technological History of Political Communication Change
The Only Constant is Change

Ben Epstein

Oxford University Press

Chapter 2 provides a historical overview of information and communications technology (ICT) development through the lens of political communication orders (PCOs) and political communication revolutions (PCRs). This chapter begins a focus on the first stage of the political communication cycle (PCC): the technological imperative. This historically rich chapter details the social and technological history of the four PCOs that have existed through American political history and the revolutions that disrupted them. First is the Elite PCO from the colonial era through the 1830s, when newspapers were printed for small, elite audiences. The Mass PCO emerged as printing technology and political access expanded in the early nineteenth century, creating the first mass media in the United States. Next, the Broadcast PCO grew out of the expansion of radio and later television use across the country. Finally, the Information PCO is linked to the internet and digital communication since the 1990s.

Keywords:   technology, development, innovation, information and communications technology, elite political communication order, mass political communication order, broadcast political communication order, information political communication order

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