The conclusion starts by summarizing the contributions of this book, before considering what the future of attribution may look like. It briefly analyzes the consequences for privacy of large metadata collection, and the effects on Internet governance of attribution mechanisms being revealed. More specifically, it contends that the potential breaking up of the Internet into multiple ‘Internets’ will reshape the practice of cyber security to some extent, but that the political limitations of attribution will remain very similar. This last chapter also briefly outlines the basis for future work by showing that attribution is not only limited to cyber attacks but also emerges in many other situations, involving the need to strike a "right" balance between anonymity, privacy and security, which is one of the key challenges of the twenty-first century. Hence, the approach to attribution will reflect how society wishes to address the anonymity-privacy-security triangle, and how it has the potential to shape the balance between these three questions for years to come.
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