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Outside the Bubble – Social Media and Political Participation in Western Democracies - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Outside the Bubble: Social Media and Political Participation in Western Democracies

Cristian Vaccari and Augusto Valeriani


The ways in which citizens experience politics on social media have overall positive implications for political participation and equality in Western democracies. This book investigates the relationship between political experiences on social media and institutional political participation based on custom-built post-election surveys on samples representative of Internet users in Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Spain, the United Kingdom, and the United States between 2015 and 2018. On the whole, social media do not constitute echo chambers, as most users see a mixture of politi ... More

Keywords: social media, political participation, democracy, echo chambers, accidental exposure, online mobilization, comparative research, inequality, elections, digital media

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2021 Print ISBN-13: 9780190858476
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: September 2021 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190858476.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Cristian Vaccari, author
Professor of Political Communication, Loughborough University

Augusto Valeriani, author
Associate Professor in Sociology of Culture and Communication, University of Bologna