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The United States and CanadaHow Two Democracies Differ and Why It Matters$
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Paul J. Quirk

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190870829

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: August 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190870829.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 26 November 2021

Bureaucratic Influence and Policymaking

Bureaucratic Influence and Policymaking

(p.113) 5 Bureaucratic Influence and Policymaking
The United States and Canada

John R. McAndrews

Bert A. Rockman

Colin Campbell

Oxford University Press

This chapter examines the influence that senior career officials in the bureaucracy have on the policy decisions that politicians make. It argues that institutional differences tend to facilitate more bureaucratic influence in Canada than in the United States (U.S.). Furthermore, it contends that the greater the influence of these career bureaucrats on the policy formulation process, the more carefully policy alternatives are considered—and, ultimately, the better the selected policy tends to perform overall. The chapter illustrates these arguments with a pair of historical vignettes concerning Canadian and American defense and environmental policymaking, as well as examples drawn from the Obama and Trump administrations and the Harper and Trudeau governments. It concludes with a discussion of the growing cross-national trend toward the politicization of the career bureaucracy.

Keywords:   career civil service, bureaucratic influence, agency politicization, political appointee, policy performance, deliberation, defense policy, environmental policy

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