The first major system of remote control specifically targeting refugees was aimed at keeping out European Jews fleeing the Nazis. The United States and Cuba used their maritime forces to keep refugees from landing on their shores. Many countries throughout the Americas openly or secretly used their visa policies to keep out Jewish refugees. The British toolbox to keep Jews from reaching Palestine included naval interceptions, visa restrictions, diplomatic pressure on buffer countries, stationing immigration liaison officers abroad, carrier sanctions, publicity campaigns, sabotaging vessels in countries of transit, crackdowns on people smugglers, and offshore island detention centers. After the war, a new asylum regime aimed at avoiding a repeat of the Holocaust and embarrassing communist countries during the Cold War made non-refoulement a centerpiece of international treaties and domestic laws. Several major rich countries lagged in joining the global regime, including the United States, Canada, Japan, and South Korea.
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