(1.) As described in Plato’s Cratylus (Indianapolis, IN: Hackett, 1998), 402a.
(2.) Michael Cherniavsky, “The Old Believers and the New Religion,” Slavic Review 25, no. 1 (1966): 1–39.
(3.) See, for example, Joel Robbins, “Crypto-Religion and the Study of Cultural Mixtures: Anthropology, Value, and the Nature of Syncretism,” Journal of the American Academy of Religion 79, no. 2 (2010): 408–424; Charles Stewart, “Syncretism and Its Synonyms: Reflections on Cultural Mixture,” Diacritics 29, no. 3 (1999): 40–62.
(4.) Plutarch, “On Brotherly Love,” in Plutarch’s Moralia, translated by William Clark Helmbold, Loeb Classical Library (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1939), 2.490b (vol. 6, 313).
(1.) Ruth Benedict, The Chrysanthemum and the Sword (Boston: Mariner Books, 2006).
(2.) Marcel Fournier, Emile Durkheim: A Biography (Cambridge, UK: Polity Press, 2013), 40.
(3.) Brent Berlin and Paul Kay, Basic Color Terms: Their Universality and Evolution (Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 1999).
(4.) John Dewey, How We Think (New York: Prometheus Books, 1991).
(6.) Adam B. Seligman and Robert P. Weller, Rethinking Pluralism: Ritual, Experience and Ambiguity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2012).
(7.) J. H. H. Weiler, “Discrimination and Identity in London: The Jewish Free School Case,” Jewish Review of Books, no. 1 (Spring 2010): 45–46.
(8.) On this case, see also Didi Herman, An Unfortunate Coincidence: Jews, Jewishness and English Law (New York: Oxford University Press, 2011).
(9.) “States File Another Lawsuit Over Transgender Rules,” New York Times, August 23, 2016.
(10.) Scott Jaschik, “Tipping Point for Trans Admissions?,” Inside Higher Ed, May 4, 2015, https://www.insidehighered.com/news/2015/05/04/smith-college-will-accept-transgender-applicants-who-identify-women.
(11.) Dewey would claim that outside of purposes there is no knowledge of any thing, and he may well be right, especially when it comes to inanimate objects. The situation with other humans is a bit more complicated, because the very definition of purposes proceeds through our joint work with other humans. This is what makes the process of social categorization so fraught.
(12.) The laws of separation of meat and milk (in terms of eating, dishes, cooking, etc.) take up whole volumes and we will not enter into them here.
(13.) Daode jing, translation from Arthur Waley, The Way and Its Power: A Study of the Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought (London: Taylor and Francis, 1934), ch. 2.
(14.) Diamond Sutra, ch. 6, in E. B. Cowell, ed., Buddhist Mahayana Texts (Oxford: Clarendon, 1894), 119.
(15.) Gregory Bateson, “Form, Substance, and Difference,” in Steps to an Ecology of Mind (New York: Ballantine Books, 1972), 448–465.
(16.) Alfred Korzybski, Science and Sanity: An Introduction to Non-Aristotelian Systems and General Semantics (Lakeville, CT: Institute for General Semantics, 1933), 750.
(17.) Adam Seligman, Rahel Wasserfall, and David Montgomery, Living with Difference: How to Build Community in a Divided World (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2015).
(18.) Benoît Mandelbrot, “How Long Is the Coast of Britain? Statistical Self-Similarity and Fractional Dimension,” Science, new series, 156, no. 3775 (1967): 636–638.
(19.) James C. Scott, The Art of Not Being Governed: An Anarchist History of Upland Southeast Asia (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 2010).
(20.) David Montgomery, Practicing Islam: Knowledge, Experience and Social Navigation in Kyrgyzstan (Pittsburgh, PA: University of Pittsburgh Press, 2016).
(21.) We draw especially on Peirce’s discussion of signs and the ground in his writing on “speculative grammar.” Charles Sanders Peirce, Collected Papers of Charles Sanders Peirce, edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1932), vol. 2, 129–173.
(22.) See his “Letters to Lady Welby” in Charles S. Peirce, Charles S. Peirce, Selected Writings, edited by Philip P. Wiener, revised edition (Mineola, NY: Dover, 2012), 380–432.
(23.) See, for example, Iddo Tavory and Stefan Timmermans, Abductive Analysis: Theorizing Qualitative Research (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2014).
(24.) Ernst Gombrich, Art and Illusion: A Study in the Psychology of Pictorial Representation (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2000), 85.
(26.) Note that a similar idea of schemas was developed more recently (and apparently without reference to Gombrich) by cognitive scientists. See, for example, Dorothy Holland and Naomi Quinn, eds., Cultural Models in Language and Thought (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987).
(27.) Islam in fact arrived significantly later in the mountains, in the eighteenth century rather than the tenth. While this is historically true, it obscures the fact that anyone alive today encounters a religion that has defined life in the environs for hundreds of years.
(28.) Goran Blagoev, The Blood Sacrifice (Kurban) in the Tradition of the Bulgarian Muslims (Pomaks) (Sofia: Marin Drinov, 2004); Biljana Sikimić and Petko Hristov, eds., Kurban in the Balkans (Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, Institute for Balkan Studies, 2007).
(29.) Blagoev, The Blood Sacrifice; Sikimić and Hristov, Kurban in the Balkans.
(30.) In Gregory Bateson, “A Theory of Play and Fantasy,” in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 177–193.
(31.) Maurice Halbwachs, On Collective Memory (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992).
(32.) Jan Assmann, Religion and Cultural Memory (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2005).
(33.) Elizabeta Koneska and Robert Jankuloski, Shared Shrines (Skopje: Macedonian Centre for Photography, 2009).
(34.) Michael Carrithers, “On Polytropy: Or the Natural Condition of Spiritual Cosmopolitanism in India. The Digambar Jain Case,” Modern Asian Studies 34, no. 4 (2000): 831–861.
(35.) David Frankfurter, Religion in Roman Egypt: Assimilation and Resistance (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1998).
(36.) Soren Kierkegaard, Repetition, translated by E. Hong and H. Hong (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983).
(1.) William James, The Principles of Psychology, revised edition (Newburyport, MA: Dover, 1950), vol. 1, 649.
(2.) Endel Tulving, “Memory: Performance, Knowledge and Experience,” European Journal of Cognitive Psychology 1 (1989): 3–26.
(5.) Elizabeth F. Loftus and John C. Palmer, “Reconstruction of Automobile Destruction: An Example of the Interaction between Language and Memory,” Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13 (1974): 585.
(6.) Plutarch, Lives, Theseus and Romulus, Lycurgus and Numa, Solon and Publicola, translated by Bernadotte Perrin (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1914), vol. 1, 49.
(8.) See also Eric Hobsbawm and Terence O. Ranger, The Invention of Tradition (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992). On the Shoah see S. Friedlander and A. Seligman, “The Israeli Memory of the Shoah: On Symbols, Rituals and Ideological Polarization,” in Now/Here: Space, Time and Modernity, edited by R. Friedland and D. Bowden (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995), 149–159.
(9.) Patrick Hutton, History as an Art of Memory (Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1993), 16. Psychological aspects of this connection between repetitive action and memory can be found in Tulving, “Memory.”
(10.) See Norman Cohn, “Medieval Millenarism,” in Millennial Dreams in Action, edited by S. Thrupp (New York: Schocken Books, 1970), 31–43; Norman Cohn, Pursuit of the Millennium (New York: Oxford University Press, 1972); Robert Lerner, The Heresy of the Free Spirit in the Late Middle Ages (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1972).
(11.) Bernardo Arevalo de Leon, “De-axialization/Re-axialization: The Case of Brazilian Millennialism,” in Order and Transcendence: The Role of Utopias and the Dynamics of Civilizations, edited by A. Seligman (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1989), 62–75.
(13.) Jan Assmann, “Collective Memory and Cultural Identity,” translated by John Czaplicka, New German Critique, April 1, 1995, 125–133.
(14.) Ko Unoki, Mergers, Acquisitions and Global Empires: Tolerance, Diversity and the Success of M&A (New York: Routledge, 2012), 56; Michael Krondl, The Taste of Conquest: The Rise and Fall of the Three Great Cities of Spice (New York: Ballantine, 2008), 209.
(15.) Donald Winnicott, Playing and Reality (New York: Routledge, 1971).
(16.) This was the number of names as of 2011; it occasionally changes as a missing soldier’s remains are identified.
(17.) Max Weber, Economy and Society (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978).
(18.) Niklas Luhmann, Trust and Power (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1979); Niklas Luhmann, “Familiarity, Confidence and Trust: Problems and Perspectives,” in Trust: Making and Breaking of Cooperative Relations, edited by Diego Gambetta (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988), 94–107.
(19.) Chen Shengbai 陈声柏, “宗教信仰与边陲汉人社会：以甘南藏区临潭为例 [Religious belief on the frontier of Han society: A case study from Lintan in Tibetan Gansu],” in 田野歸來——中國宗教和中國社會研究 [Returning (p.185) from the field: Research into Chinese religion and society], edited by Fenggang Yang, Shining Gao, and Xiangping Li (Taipei: 台灣基督教文藝出版社), vol. 2, 343–361.
(20.) Or, in the words of the Lew Brown and Ray Henderson song that apparently first used the phrase, “Life is just a bowl of cherries / Don’t take it serious, it’s too mysterious.”
(1.) The quotation in this chapter’s title is from Gabriel Tarde, The Laws of Imitation (New York: Henry Holt, 1903), 87.
(3.) Erving Goffman, Frame Analysis: An Essay on the Organization of Experience (Boston: Northeastern University Press, 1986).
(6.) This is also Austin’s point that every utterance is a performative in the sense that it states or implies a definition of its own frame as statement of fact, promise, threat, or whatever it happens to be. J. L. Austin, How to Do Things with Words, 2nd edition (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1975).
(8.) Ernst Cassirer, The Philosophy of Symbolic Forms (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1955), vol. 1, 182, 183.
(9.) Owen Barfield, Poetic Diction: A Study in Meaning (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1984).
(10.) See, most generally, S. N. Eisenstadt, ed., Max Weber on Charisma and Institution Building (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1968).
(11.) Silvia Ferreti, Cassirer, Panofsky, Warburg: Symbol, Art and History (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1985), 7.
(13.) Ruth Padawer, “When Women Become Men at Wellesley,” New York Times Magazine, October 19, 2014.
(14.) Edward Shils, Tradition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1981), 34.
(15.) “Statue of Lei Feng Built at China’s Changsha,” Shanghai Daily, October 24, 2013, https://www.shine.cn/archive/nation/Statue-of-Lei-Feng-built-at-Chinas-Changsha/shdaily.shtml.
(16.) Adam Seligman, field notes of December 14–21, 2014. See also Seligman, Wasserfall, and Montgomery, Living with Difference, 132–135.
(17.) Roger Caillois, “Mimicry and Legendary Psychasthenia” (1935), translated by John Shepley, October 31 (1984): 25.
(20.) Stephen Halliwell, The Aesthetics of Mimesis (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002), 153.
(22.) Gregory Bateson, “Double Bind,” in Steps to an Ecology of Mind, 271–278.
(23.) Rachel Kushner, “‘We Are Orphans Here,’” New York Times Magazine, December 1, 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/12/01/magazine/we-are-orphans-here.html.
(25.) Sigmund Freud, “Remembering, Repeating and Working-Through,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, edited by James Strachey (London: Hogarth Press, 1958), vol. 12, 145–156; Sigmund Freud, “Beyond the Pleasure Principle,” in The Standard Edition of the Complete Psychological Works of Sigmund Freud, edited by James Strachey (London: Hogarth Press, 1955), vol. 18, 34–43.
(1.) George Lakoff and Mark Johnson, Metaphors We Live By (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1980).
(2.) John Locke, An Essay concerning Human Understanding, Project Gutenberg, 2004, online, vol. 2, III, x, 34.
(3.) John Quijada, “Ithkuil: A Philosophical Design for a Hypothetical Language,” 2011, http://ithkuil.net. See also Joshua Foer, “Utopian for Beginners,” The New Yorker, 2012, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2012/12/24/utopian-for-beginners.
(6.) Paul de Man, “The Epistemology of Metaphor,” in On Metaphor, edited by Sheldon Sacks (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 11–28.
(7.) Max Black, “More about Metaphor,” in Metaphor and Thought, edited by Andrew Ortony (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 37.
(8.) Paul Ricoeur, “The Metaphorical Process as Cognition, Imagination, and Feeling,” in On Metaphor (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979), 152.
(9.) Andrew Ortony, “The Role of Similarity in Similes and Metaphors,” in Metaphor and Thought, edited by Andrew Ortony (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1973), 191.
(10.) This concept became central to Marion Milner’s understanding of how symbol systems worked in the developing consciousness of children. See “The Role of Illusion in Symbol Formation,” in New Directions in Psycho-Analysis, edited by M. Klein, P. Heimann, and R. E. Money-Kyrle (New York: Basic Books, 1965), 82–108.
(11.) We can think of mimesis in terms of Peircian indexes (a kind of “secondness,” in his terms)—that is, as behavior carrying performative force. Memory is a form of what he called “thirdness” and is most aligned with symbols shared through socially constructed conventions.
(12.) We are grateful to Sarah Ana Seligman for her insights in this matter and for sharing with us her unpublished paper, “Ambiguity and an Image of Western Myth.”
(13.) Marion Milner, “Aspects of Symbolism and Comprehension of the Not-Self,” International Journal of Psychoanalysis 33 (1952): 182.
(15.) M. C. D’Arcy, The Mind and Heart of Love (New York: H. Holt, 1956).
(16.) Irving Singer, The Nature of Love (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984); Denis de Rougement, Love in the Western World (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1983).
(19.) Andrew Pickering, “Concepts and the Mangle of Practice Constructing Quaternions,” in 18 Unconventional Essays on the Nature of Mathematics, edited by Reuben Hersh (New York: Springer, 2006), 250–288.
(21.) Hugh Petrie, “Metaphor and Learning,” in Metaphor and Thought, edited by Andrew Ortony (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 438–461; Donald Schön, “Generative Metaphor: A Perspective on Problem-Setting in Social Polity,” in Metaphor and Thought, edited by Andrew Ortony (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 254–283; I. A. Richards, The Philosophy of Rhetoric (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1965), 91–138; Ted Cohen, Thinking of Others: On the Talent for Metaphor (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2012).
(26.) Schön, “Generative Metaphor,” 257.
(31.) G. Rundbla and D. Annaz, “The Atypical Development of Metaphor and Metonymy Comprehension in Children with Autism,” Autism 14, no. 1 (2010): 29–46.
(34.) Antonio Gramsci, Selections from the Prison Notebooks (New York: International Publishers, 1971), 106–125.
(35.) Harry Wolfson, The Philosophy of the Church Fathers (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1956).
(36.) Perry Miller, Errand into the Wilderness (New York: Harper and Row, 1964); Sacvan Bercovitch, The Puritan Origins of the American Self (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1975); Adam B. Seligman, Innerworldly Individualism: Charismatic Community and Its Institutionalization (New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Press, 1994); Avihu Zakai, Exile and the Kingdom (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1992).
(37.) Ruth Bloch, Visionary Republic: Millennial Themes in American Thought: 1756–1800 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1985).
(1.) Bronislaw Malinowski, Argonauts of the Western Pacific (London: Routledge, 1922). Marcel Mauss, The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies, translated by W. D. Halls (London: Norton, 2000).
(2.) Marilyn Strathern, The Gender of the Gift (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1988); Annette Weiner, Inalienable Possessions: The Paradox of Keeping-While-Giving (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1992); Jacques Derrida, Given Time (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1994); John Milbank, “Can a Gift Be Given? Prolegomena to a Future Trinitarian Metaphysic,” Modern Theology 11, no. 1 (1995): 119–161; John Milbank, The Word Made Strange: Theology, Language, Culture, (Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1997); John Milbank, “The Soul of Reciprocity: Part One, Reciprocity Refused,” Modern Theology 17, no. 3 (2001): 335–391; John Milbank, “The Soul of Reciprocity: Part Two, Reciprocity Granted,” Modern Theology 17, no. 4 (2001): 485–507; Pierre Bourdieu, Outline of a Theory of Practice, translated by Richard Nice (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1977); Maurice Godelier, The Enigma of the Gift, translated by Nora Scott (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999); Marshall Sahlins, Stone Age Economics (New Brunswick, NJ: Aldine Transaction, 1974), 149–184; Claude Levi-Strauss, Introduction to the Work of Marcel Mauss (London: Routledge, 1987).
(3.) The role of women in these stories would take us too far afield, though Marilyn Strathern has written a whole book titled The Gender of the Gift.
(4.) Emile Durkheim, Sociology and Philosophy (New York: Free Press, 1974).
(5.) Kenneth Arrow, The Limits of Organization (New York: Norton, 1974), 23.
(6.) See the discussion in S. N. Eisenstadt, Power, Trust, Meaning (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995), 345.
(8.) Chesed, piety or graciousness, does not translate well given the heavy Christological connotations of grace in our language.
(9.) It is worth noting that already Maimonides’s Mishneh Torah (Seder Mishpatim, Hilchot Evel, chapter 14, 1–7) of the twelfth century recognizes the importance of the workings of such generalized exchange in society.
(10.) Robert Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1993); Francis Fukuyama, Trust: Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995); Arrow, The Limits of Organization. Note that such symbolic credit, which is based on developing a set of mutual expectations, provides the basis of cooperation in iterated prisoner’s dilemma games as well.
(11.) Janet Landa, Trust, Ethnicity and Identity: Beyond the New Institutional Economics of Ethnic Trading, Networks, Contract Law and Gift Exchange (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994); Avner Grief, “Reputations and Coalitions in Medieval Trade: Evidence on Maghribi Traders,” Journal of Economic History 49, no. 4 (1989): 857–882; Avner Grief, “Contract Enforceability and Economic Institutions in Early Trade: The Maghribi Traders’ Coalition,” American Economic Review 83, no. 3 (1993): 525–548.
(14.) James Laidlaw, “A Free Gift Makes No Friends,” Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute 6, no. 4 (2000): 632.
(16.) Yunxiang Yan, The Flow of Gifts: Reciprocity and Social Networks in a Chinese Village (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1996).
(18.) Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of Religious Life (London: George Allen and Unwin, 1915).
(19.) Andrew B. Kipnis, Producing Guanxi: Sentiment, Self, and Subculture in a North China Village (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1997); Yan, The Flow of Gifts; Mayfair Mei-hui Yang, Gifts, Favors, and Banquets: The Art of Social Relationships in China (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1994).
(20.) In order not to complicate the argument, we have not addressed the way certain high-status cigarettes could be hoarded to create ties to more special partners. There are some examples in Peter Hessler’s Country Driving (New York: Harper Collins, 2010).
(21.) Adam B. Seligman et al., Ritual and Its Consequences: An Essay on the Limits of Sincerity (New York: Oxford University Press, 2008), 89.
(22.) Of course, the bottle held special memories to the Chinese scholar, who thought of his parents making the wine, of his sister getting married, of the rural world in which he grew up and which had now almost disappeared into urban sprawl. Robert was not part of those memories, but the metaphorical aspect allowed him to be brought toward them, as much of the conversation involved sharing those memories as much as possible.
(23.) Ching-Lang Hou, Monnaies D’Offrande et La Notion de Tresorerie Dans La Religion Chinoise (Paris: College de France, Institut des hautes etudes chinoises, 1975); Rudolf G. Wagner, “Fate’s Gift Economy: The Chinese Case of Coping with the Asymmetry between Man and Fate,” in Money as God? The Monetization of the Market and Its Impact on Religion, Politics, Law, and Ethics, edited by Jürgen von Hagen and Michael Welker (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2014): 184–218.
(25.) Emily Martin Ahern, Chinese Ritual and Politics (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1981).
(26.) Henrietta Harrison, The Missionary’s Curse and Other Tales from a Chinese Catholic Village (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2013).
(1.) See Isadore Twersky, “The Shulkan Aruk: Enduring Code of Jewish Law,” Judaism 16, no. 2 (1967): 141–158.
(2.) In David Hall, ed., The Antinomian Controversy: A Documentary History (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1968), 17–18.
(3.) Pew Research Center, Religion and Public Life, “The Global Catholic Population,” February 13, 2013, http://www.pewforum.org/2013/02/13/the-global-catholic-population/.
(4.) On the distinction of church and sect see Ernst Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches (New York: Harper, 1960).
(6.) Marshall McLuhan, Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man (New York: Mentor Books, 1964).
(7.) Daniel Boyarin, Borderlines: The Partition of Judeo-Christianity (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2004).
(13.) Alexander Altman, “Franz Rosenzweig on History,” in Between East and West: Essays Dedicated to the Memory of Bela Horovitz, edited by A. Altman (London: East and West Library, 1958), 202.
(14.) Translation from the Jewish Publication Society edition, Philadelphia, 2003.
(15.) Rahel Wasserfall, ed., Women and Water: Menstruation in Jewish Life and Law (Waltham, MA: Brandeis University Press, 1999), 1–20.
(16.) Jacques Maritain, “The Mystery of Israel,” in Redeeming the Time (London: Centenary Press, 1953), 134.
(17.) Joshua Trachtenberg, The Devil and the Jews: The Medieval Conception of the Jew and Its Relation to Modern Antisemitism (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1983), 50.
(19.) Jonathan Elukin, Living Together, Living Apart: Rethinking Jewish-Christian Relations in the Middle Ages (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2007), 14–15.
(20.) Sylvie-Anne Goldberg, Crossing the Jabbok: Illness and Death in Ashkenazi Judaism in Sixteenth through Nineteenth-Century Prague (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1996), 27.
(21.) As we see so strongly in the Pauline letters, however, these new metaphors generally referred to already existing communities.
(22.) On the question of “typological readings” of the Bible, Marc Saperstein has an article comparing Jewish and Christian approaches, and he finds much in common. Yet the essential difference is that the Jewish approach tends to be broadly conceived, whereas the Christian reading always identifies the protagonist as a precursor to Jesus (as in the Akedah). See his “Jewish Typological Exegesis after Nahmanides,” Jewish Studies Quarterly 2 (1993): 1–13. In point of fact, however, over the course of two millennia there have been varied readings of biblical stories within the Jewish tradition. For example, in the twelfth century the Rashba needed to protest and counter more philosophical and hence symbolic readings of the Abraham stories. Similarly, the story of Jacob and Esau had been taken as symbolic of the continuing struggle between Jews and Christians. Later, European Hassidism interpreted biblical stories as moral fables for good living. Aviva Zornberg’s contemporary books on Genesis and Exodus bring this home clearly through her reliance on Hasidic readings that dovetail for her with many modern psychoanalytic insights.
(23.) On the role of blood in The Merchant of Venice, see Janet Adelman, Blood Relations: Christian and Jew in The Merchant of Venice (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008).
(24.) Jay Berkowitz, The Shaping of Jewish Identity in Nineteenth-Century France (Detroit: Wayne State University Press, 1989), 44.
(25.) Hannah Arendt, Antisemitism (New York: Harcourt, Brace and World, 1951), 35.
(26.) On the Inquisition, see Adelman, Blood Relations, 80. On the relation of Jews and Christian nationalism, see Arendt, Antisemitism; Alex Bein, “Modern (p.192) Antisemitism and Its Place in the History of the Jewish Question,” in Between East and West: Essays Dedicated to the Memory of Bela Horovitz, edited by A. Altman (London: East and West Library, 1958), 164–193.
(27.) Berkowitz, The Shaping of Jewish Identity, 71.
(28.) Evidence of Rosenzweig’s attitude toward the first orientation is easier to find in his writings than evidence of the second. See, for example, his introduction to part 3 of his Star of Redemption (Boston: Beacon Press, 1964) as well as “The Pantheon of Today,” in Franz Rosenzweig: His Life and Thought, edited by Nahum Glatzer (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1953), 277.
(30.) We use the male pronoun here self-consciously. Gender is a complex issue in this context; Christian attitudes toward Jewish women were much more ambivalent than those toward men. For instance, in the late medieval and early modern period, there was a wide-ranging and normative Christian tradition absolving Jewish women from complicity in the crucifixion.
(31.) Our distinction here draws on Weberian categories of this-worldly and other-worldly religions, where Judaism is much more this-worldly than Christianity. Judaism’s soteriological doctrine stresses what L. Dumont termed in-worldly actions rather than world rejection. Louis Dumont, “A Modified View of Our Origins: The Christian Beginnings of Modern Individualism,” Religion 12 (1982): 1–27. See also Max Weber, “The Social Psychology of World Religions” and “Religious Rejections of the World and Their Directions,” in From Max Weber, edited by H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills (New York: Oxford University Press, 1946), 267–301, 323–362. Or, in the terms of Rabbi Joseph B. Soloveitchik, perhaps the most respected twentieth-century American orthodox Rabbi and thinker, Judaism seeks not to bring men up to heaven but to bring heaven down to earth. See his Halakhic Man (Philadelphia: Jewish Publication Society, 1964).
(35.) Paula Fredrikson, Augustine on the Jews: A Christian Defense of Jews and Judaism (New York: Doubleday, 2008), 245, 363.
(37.) Berkowitz, The Shaping of Jewish Identity, 111–126.
(39.) Jacob Taubes, The Political Theology of Paul (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2003), 41.
(41.) Sigmund Freud, Civilization and Its Discontents, translated by James Strachey (New York: Norton, 1962), 305.
(1.) Peirce, Collected Papers, 135. Italics in the original.
(3.) Kent Roach, “The Uses and Audiences of Preambles in Legislation,” McGill Law Journal 47 (2001): 129–159, http://lawjournal.mcgill.ca/userfiles/other/8178207-47.1.Roach.pdf.
(4.) For a good, brief discussion of this issue see Sandro Magister, “It’s Secular Because It’s Christian: Europe Seeks Its Identity Card,” Chiesa, October 3, 2003, http://chiesa.espresso.repubblica.it/articolo/6978bdc4.html?eng=y.
(5.) “Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe,” European Union, accessed October 28, 2017, https://europa.eu/european-union/sites/europaeu/files/docs/body/treaty_establishing_a_constitution_for_europe_en.pdf.
(6.) On the social aspects of Kurban, see also Biljana Dikimic and Petko Hristov, eds., Kurban in the Balkans (Belgrade: Institute for Balkan Studies, 2007).
(7.) Anton Donchev, Time of Parting (New York: William Morrow, 1968).
(8.) On these aspects of Calvinism, see Harro Höpfl, The Christian Polity of John Calvin (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1982); Sheldon Wohlin, “Calvinism and Reformation: The Political Education of Protestantism,” American Political Science Review 51 (1957): 425–454; David Little, Religion, Order and Law: A Study in Pre-Revolutionary England (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984); Michael Walzer, The Revolution of the Saints (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1965); Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, vol. 2, 576–690. On the place of Calvinism in the history of Western political thought, see Quinten Skinner, The Foundations of Modern Political Thought (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1979), 189–348. On some of its social implications, see Steven Ozment, The Reformation in the Cities (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1975); Norman Birnbaum, “The Zwinglian Reformation in Zurich” Past & Present 15 (April 1959): 27–47; J. E. Ellemers, “The Revolt of the Netherlands: The Part Played by Religion in the Process of Nation-Building,” Social Compass 14 (1967): 93–103.
(9.) John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, edited by John McNeill (Philadelphia: Westminster John Knox Press, 1960): IV, 1, 15.
(10.) Troeltsch, The Social Teachings of the Christian Churches, vol. 2, 596.
(12.) The extent to which the covenants regulated the lives of those who entered into them can be evinced in the 1642 Independent Covenant presented by John Baswick and reproduced by Michael Tolmie in The Triumph of the Saints: The Separate Churches of London 1616–1649 (Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 1977), 196. See also Michael Watts, The Dissenters (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1978), 30, 31, 41, 42, 55, 56. On the centrality of the covenant in the lives of the Puritans, see Patrick Collinson, “Towards a Broader Understanding of the (p.194) Dissenting Tradition,” in The Dissenting Tradition, edited by C. Cole and M. Moody (Athens: Ohio University Press, 1975), 3–38. On the relation of covenant theology to Calvinist doctrine see Miller, Errand into the Wilderness, 48–98; Jens Møller, “The Beginnings of Puritan Covenant Theology,” Journal of Ecclesiastical History 14 (1963): 46–67. Further theological aspects are explored in Klaus Baltzer, The Covenant Formulary (Philadelphia: Fortress Press, 1971); C. Burrage, The Church Covenant Idea: Its Origins and Development (Philadelphia: American Baptist Publication Society, 1904); David Zaret, The Heavenly Contract: Ideology and Organization in Pre-Revolutionary Puritanism (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984).
(13.) Explicit injunctions on the profane nature of the communion table can be found in Nicholas Ridley’s Reasons Why the Lord’s Board Should Be after the Form of a Table than of an Altar where he states, “[T]he form of a Table shall more move the simple from the superstitious opinions of the popish Mass, unto the right use of the Lord’s Supper. For the use of an altar is to make sacrifice upon it: the use of a table is to serve men to eat upon.” Quoted in Francis Clark, The Eucharist Sacrifice and the Reformation (London: Darton, Longmans and Todd, 1960), 132.
(14.) Patrick Collinson, The Elizabethan Puritan Movement (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1967); Møller, “The Beginnings of Puritan Covenant Theology”; Zaret, The Heavenly Contract.
(16.) Donald Kelly, The Beginnings of Ideology (London: Cambridge University Press, 1981), 80.
(18.) George Williams, The Radical Reformation (Philadelphia: Westminster Press, 1962).
(20.) Edward Johnson, Wonder-Working Providence of Sions Saviour in New England, 1654, edited by J. F. Jameson (New York: Scribner, 1952), 52.
(21.) Jian Youwen [Jen Yu-wen], Taiping Tianguo Dianzhi Tongkao [Research into the institutions of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom] (Hong Kong: Mengjin Shuwu, 1958), 1693.
(22.) Taiping Tianri in Franz Michael with Chang Chung-li, The Taiping Rebellion: History and Documents (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1966–1971), vol. 2, 54.
(23.) See Robert P. Weller, Resistance, Chaos and Control (Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1994).
(24.) Yan Zhengji, ‘‘Lun Yuexi Zei Qingbing Shi Shimo [All about the Guangxi bandits and the Qing Army]” 1854, in Taiping Tianguo Shiliao Zongpian Jianji [Selected (p.195) historical sources on the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom], vol. 2, compiled by Taiping Tianguo Lishi Bowuguan (Beijing: Zhonghua Shuju, 1962).
(25.) For an example, see Theodore Hamberg, The Visions of Hung-siu-tshuen and the Origin of the Kwang-si Insurrection (Hong Kong: China Mail, 1854), 37–38.
(27.) For an analysis of this dynamic see Adam Seligman, “Collective Boundaries and Social Reconstruction in Seventeenth Century New England,” Journal of Religious History 16, no. 3 (1991): 260–279.
(28.) On these social dynamics see David Hall, The Faithful Shepherd: A History of the New England Ministry in the 17th Century (New York: Norton, 1972), 201–216; Robert Pope, The Half-Way Covenant: Church Membership in Puritan New England (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1969); Perry Miller, The New England Mind: From Colony to Province (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press, 1953), 93–104.
(29.) Hall, The Faithful Shepherd; Miller, The New England Mind; Paul Lucas, Valley of Discord: Church and Society along the Connecticut River 1636–1662 (Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press, 1968).
(31.) On the importance of this shared past, see Seligman, Innerworldly Individualism, 131–150; and Adam B. Seligman, “Charisma and the Transformation of Grace in the Early Modern Era,” Social Research 58, no. 3 (1991): 591–620.
(32.) Increase Mather, The Day of Trouble is Near (Cambridge, MA, 1674); Increase Mather, The First Principles of New England (Cambridge, MA, 1675); Increase Mather, An Earnest Exhortation to the Children of New England (Boston, 1711); William Stoughton, New England’s True Interest (Cambridge, MA, 1670); Samuel Torrey, Exhortation unto Reformation (Cambridge, MA, 1674); Samuel Torrey, A Plea for the Life of a Dying Religion (Boston, 1683); Samuel Torrey, Man’s Extremity, God’s Opportunity (Boston, 1695); Uriah Oakes, New England Pleaded With (Cambridge, MA, 1673).
(33.) On the jeremiad sermon in general see Sacvan Bercovitch, The American Jeremiad (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1978). See also David Minter, “The Puritan Jeremiad as a Literary Form” in The American Puritan Imagination: Essays in Re-evaluation, edited by S. Bercovitch, (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1974), 44–55.
(35.) Samuel Sewall, Phaenomena quaedem Apocalypitca (Boston: Bartholomew Green and John Allen, 1697), 59.
(36.) E. Brooks Holifield, “The Renaissance of Puritan Sacramental Piety in Colonial New England,” William and Mary Quarterly 29 (1972): 33–48; E. Brooks Holifield, The Covenant Sealed: The Development of Puritan Sacramental Theology in Old and New England 1570–1720 (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974); C. Hambrick-Stowe, The Practice of Piety: Puritan Devotional Disciplines in (p.196) Seventeenth Century New England (Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1982); Perry Miller, “The Puritan Theory of Sacraments in Seventeenth Century New England,” Catholic Historical Review 22 (1937): 409–425; Perry Miller, “Preparation for Salvation in Seventeenth Century New England,” Journal of the History of Ideas 4 (1943): 259–286.
(37.) Of course, they are never literally the same, and it would certainly be possible to write at length about how other attempts to ground as memory or metaphor sometimes come to the surface, only to be overtaken again by mimesis. Thus, for example, the territories that deities mark out on their tours are sometimes reworked. This creates a claim to a different kind of association between temple and territory (and thus a different community of memory), and so is always controversial. Yet adjustments eventually become habits, and memory continues in the service of mimesis rather than becoming the dominant mode.
(38.) In fact, many urban areas outside of Taiwan and Fujian had Tianhou temples in imperial times. These were almost always affiliated with native place associations for Fujian merchants (and Taiwan was a part of Fujian until 1885). In some cases, they also achieved a significant local following.
(39.) Admiral Zheng He had led several massive fleets on journeys of exploration in the early fifteenth century. Because Tianhou was famous for protecting seafarers, he stopped at her main temple in Fujian at the beginning of one of his trips and borrowed an image to take along. At his successful return to Nanjing (which was the imperial capital at the time), he founded a temple to house the image and to express his gratitude.
(40.) On this notion see Don Handelman, Models and Mirrors: Towards an Anthropology of Public Events (New York: Berghahn, 1988).
(1.) See, for example, his “Message from His Holiness Pope Francis for Lent 2015,” accessed May 3, 2018, https://w2.vatican.va/content/francesco/en/messages/lent/documents/papa-francesco_20141004_messaggio-quaresima2015.html.
(2.) Stein Rokkan, “Dimensions of State Formation and Nation-Building: A Possible Paradigm for Research on Variations within Europe,” in The Formation of National States in Western Europe, edited by C. Tilly (Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1975), 562–600.
(3.) Eugene Weber, From Peasants into Frenchmen: The Modernization of Rural France 1870–1914 (Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 1976).
(4.) J. Laslett and S. M. Lipset, eds., Failure of a Dream (New York: Anchor Books, 1974); Werner Sombart, Why Is There No Socialism in the United States? (p.197) (London: Macmillan, 1975); Seymour Martin Lipset, “American Exceptionalism in the North American Perspective: Why the United States Has Withstood the World Socialist Movement,” in The Idea of America, edited by G. Adams (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1977), 107–161.
(5.) Leo Samson, “Americanism as Surrogate Socialism,” in Failure of a Dream, ed. J. Laslett and S. M. Lipset (Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1974), 426.
(6.) On the former, see Rogers Brubaker, Citizenship and Nationhood in France and Germany (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992).
(7.) Emile Durkheim, Professional Ethics and Civic Morals (London: Routledge, 1992).
(8.) Gregor Aisch et al., “How France Voted,” New York Times, May 7, 2017, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2017/05/07/world/europe/france-election-results-maps.html?mcubz=0&_r=0.
(11.) H. G. Gadamer, Truth and Method (New York: Continuum Books, 1975), 249.
(13.) Benjamin Nelson, The Idea of Usury: From Tribal Brotherhood to Universal Otherhood (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1969).
(14.) R. H. Tawney, Religion and the Rise of Capitalism: A Historical Study (Gloucester, MA: Peter Smith, 1962), 254.
(15.) Marianne Moyaert and Joris Gelbhof, eds., Ritual Participation and Interreligious Dialogue (London: Bloomsbury Press, 2016).
(16.) Hannah Pitkin, The Attack of the Blob: Hannah Arendt’s Concept of the Social (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000).
(18.) Something very similar happened in Nataf, Israel, in November 2016, when Palestinians and Israelis worked together to put out the devastating fires that raged in parts of Israel and the West Bank. “Amid Flames and Suspicions in Israel, Acts of Jewish-Arab Cooperation.” New York Times, November 28, 2016.
(19.) John Dewey, Art as Experience (London: Penguin, 1980), 88.
(20.) John Dewey, Democracy and Education (New York: Dover Books, 2004), 134.
(23.) See Milner, “Aspects of Symbolism,” 182.
(24.) John Dewey, Experience and Nature (New York: Dover Books, 1936), 87.
(25.) John Dewey, How We Think (New York: Prometheus Books, 1991), 109. (p.198)