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From Conquest to DeportationThe North Caucasus under Russian Rule$
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Jeronim Perovic

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190889890

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: January 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190889890.001.0001

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Revolutions and Civil War

Revolutions and Civil War

(p.103) 4 Revolutions and Civil War
From Conquest to Deportation

Jeronim Perović

Oxford University Press

The focus of this chapter is on the complex developments in the North Caucasus during the time of Revolution and Civil War (1917-1921). If the period of the February and October revolutions was characterized by attempts of the North Caucasian political and religious elite to form a single state entity, the outbreak of civil war brought societal and ethnic cleavages to the fore, undermining common state-building efforts. Caucasians fought on all sides of the front, but most of the North Caucasian Muslims allied themselves with the forces of the Bolsheviks, with whom they shared a common cause: to prevent the re-establishment of the old regime. While the “White” troops under former tsarist General Anton Denikin fought for a Russia “one and united,” the Bolsheviks promised the non-Russian peoples land and freedom. Shortly after the triumph of the Bolsheviks, cracks began to appear in these alliances. By mid-1920, the mountainous parts of Chechnia and Dagestan had been set aflame in a large-scale anti-Bolshevik uprising led Imam Gotsinskii. Only in late 1921 did the Bolsheviks, with assistance from regular units of the Red Army, manage to crush this rebellion and establish military superiority.

Keywords:   February Revolution of 1917, October Revolution of 1917, Russian Civil War, North Caucasus, White Movement, Bolsheviks, Red Army, Anton Denikin, Imam Gotsinskii

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