Historical Evolution of Civil–Military Relations
This chapter explains the historical evolution of civil–military relations in India. While doing so, it focuses on leadership style and civil–military relations under five wartime prime ministers—Jawaharlal Nehru, Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi, Rajiv Gandhi, and Atal Bihari Vajpayee. Together, they were at the helm of affairs for almost five decades after independence and significantly influenced the narrative on civil–military relations. Relying on archival sources, it sheds new light especially on events preceding the 1962 border war with China. It highlights variance in the pattern of civil–military relations under these leaders that, in turn, shaped military effectiveness. Next, the chapter focuses on an essential element shaping civil–military relations—the interaction between civilian bureaucrats and military officers.
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