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The Nonviolent Struggle for Indian Freedom, 1905-19$
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David Hardiman

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190920678

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190920678.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 January 2022

‘Passive Resistance’ in India, 1905–09

‘Passive Resistance’ in India, 1905–09

(p.21) 1 ‘Passive Resistance’ in India, 1905–09
The Nonviolent Struggle for Indian Freedom, 1905-19

David Hardiman

Oxford University Press

The first chapter examines the development of civil forms of protest in India under the rubric of ‘passive resistance’. This method was devised initially by nationalist activists who were impressed by the success of campaigns of what was then known as ‘passive resistance’ in Europe. These European campaigns are appraised in their historical context, showing how they inspired Indian nationalists involved in the Swadeshi Movement of 1905-09, with its rallying cry of Bande Mataram (Victory to the Motherland). The important contribution of the Bengali nationalist, Aurobindo Ghose, in the development of this strategy is analyzed. The focus in these campaigns was on efficacy rather than ethics. This tradition continued in India into the Gandhian period, and it is one of the tasks of this book to show how this created enduring tensions within the movement.

Keywords:   Passive resistance, Civil protest in India, Passive resistance in Europe, Indian nationalists, Aurobindo Ghose, Bengal, Swadeshi, Bande Mataram

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