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The Nonviolent Struggle for Indian Freedom, 1905-19$
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David Hardiman

Print publication date: 2018

Print ISBN-13: 9780190920678

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190920678.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 January 2022

Exposing State Terror

Exposing State Terror

The Rowlatt Satyagraha, 1919

(p.171) 5 Exposing State Terror
The Nonviolent Struggle for Indian Freedom, 1905-19

David Hardiman

Oxford University Press

The subject of the fifth chapter is the first major all-India campaign led by Gandhi, the Rowlatt Satyagraha of 1919. This was in reaction to oppressive legislation being introduced by the British to counter a supposed threat from violent extremist nationalists. The nonviolent protest met with a draconian reaction in Punjab, which included the notorious Amritsar massacre at Jallianwala Bagh, creating what is described in the literature on nonviolent resistance as ‘backfire’ – where terror by the state serves to alienate moderates and thus create the conditions for even more powerful resistance. This led into the major anti-British campaign of 1920-22, the Noncooperation Movement, which is the subject of the next volume.

Keywords:   Rowlatt Satyagraha, All-India campaign, Gandhi, Nonviolent protest, Punjab, Amritsar massacre, Anti-British campaign, Oppressive legislation, Noncooperation Movement, Jallianwala Bagh

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