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Sinners in the Presence of a Loving God – An Essay on the Problem of Hell - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Sinners in the Presence of a Loving God: An Essay on the Problem of Hell

R. Zachary Manis


This book is a philosophical exploration of the various facets of the problem of hell, the reasons that the usual responses to the problem are unsatisfying, and the way that an adequate solution to the problem can be constructed. What drives discussion of the problem of hell, most fundamentally, is the question of why a perfectly good and loving God would consign anyone to eternal suffering in hell. Four main lines of response have been developed to answer it—viz., traditionalism, annihilationism, the choice model, and universalism—but, for different reasons, each of these standard options end ... More

Keywords: hell, heaven, problem of evil, eternal punishment, retribution, universalism, annihilationism, choice model, Eastern Orthodoxy, Calvinism

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2019 Print ISBN-13: 9780190929251
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190929251.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

R. Zachary Manis, author
Professor, Southwest Baptist University