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Gambling with ViolenceState Outsourcing of War in Pakistan and India$
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Yelena Biberman

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190929961

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190929961.001.0001

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“Guns Plus Interest”

“Guns Plus Interest”

Renegades and Villagers in India’s Kashmir War

(p.64) 4 “Guns Plus Interest”
Gambling with Violence

Yelena Biberman

Oxford University Press

This chapter shows that the principal factors driving the state-nonstate alliances in Kashmir (1989–2003) were the local balance of power and actors’ interests. It was only when the Indian army demonstrated force employment prowess through a string of military victories that it was able to attract opportunists. These were former rebels seeking local power, profit, and security. The proxies—most notably the Ikhwan-ul-Muslimoon in the north, as well as the Jammu and Kashmir Ikhwan and Muslim Mujahideen in the south of the Kashmir Valley—helped to shift the balance of power in India’s favor. This prompted the insurgency to move to the mountainous Jammu region. There, the security forces turned to local activists. These, mostly Hindu, villagers formed the so-called Village Defense Committees.

Keywords:   Kashmir, Renegade, Ikhwan, Ikhwan-ul-Muslimoon, Muslim Mujahideen, Village Defense Committee, Kuka Parrey, JKLF, Hizbul Mujahideen, Rashtriya Rifles

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