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Gambling with ViolenceState Outsourcing of War in Pakistan and India$
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Yelena Biberman

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190929961

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190929961.001.0001

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Tribal “Awakenings” in Pakistan and India

Tribal “Awakenings” in Pakistan and India

(p.97) 5 Tribal “Awakenings” in Pakistan and India
Gambling with Violence

Yelena Biberman

Oxford University Press

This chapter presents two little-known but highly consequential rebellions in Pakistan and India, and the state-nonstate alliances forged to combat them. In Pakistan, what led to the alliance was the local tribes’ desire to take back their land from the Taliban, and the state’s willingness to collaborate with the tribes in order to prevent the further spread of the anti-Pakistan Taliban outside the tribal areas. Islamabad was not prepared to enforce full sovereignty over the region, and so its alliance with the tribes was weak. The Naxalite insurgency enjoyed free reign over a region that remained for many decades a backwater to the Indian government. But, when the insurgency gained serious steam and private companies developed plans to exploit the area’s mineral deposits, the government stepped in. After achieving a rough balance of local power, it allied with opportunists, who formed a civilian-manned counterinsurgency outfit known as the Salwa Judum.

Keywords:   lashkar, TTP, FATA, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Salwa Judum, Special Police Officer, Chhattisgarh, Maoist, Naxalite, Taliban

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