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Gambling with ViolenceState Outsourcing of War in Pakistan and India$
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Yelena Biberman

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190929961

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190929961.001.0001

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All the State’s Proxies in Turkey and Russia

All the State’s Proxies in Turkey and Russia

(p.129) 6 All the State’s Proxies in Turkey and Russia
Gambling with Violence

Yelena Biberman

Oxford University Press

This chapter considers the applicability of the balance-of-interests framework beyond South Asia with cases drawn from Turkey (1984–1999) and Russia (1994–96 and 1999–2002). Despite their differences, these states behaved very similarly to Pakistan and India. When, in the mid-1980s, the Kurdish rebels came to dominate the Kurdish countryside, the Turkish army allied with nationalist clans. Once a rough balance of local power was achieved, opportunists joined the counterinsurgency. Then, as in Kashmir, the rebels relocated. This prompted the Turkish army to ally with Islamist militants operating in the rebel-controlled urban areas. It was not until the Russian army achieved parity with the Chechen rebels that the likes of Bislan Gantamirov and Akhmad Kadyrov opportunistically joined the Russian side. The former, a convicted criminal, helped Moscow recapture the capital city of Grozny. The latter, a former rebel leader, and his son, Ramzan Kadyrov, helped Moscow regain control of Chechnya.

Keywords:   Kurdistan, PKK, Village Guard, Kurdish Hizbullah, Chechnya, Kadyrov, kadyrovtsy, Gantamirov, gantamirovtsy

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