Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Cold War in the Islamic WorldSaudi Arabia, Iran and the Struggle for Supremacy$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Dilip Hiro

Print publication date: 2019

Print ISBN-13: 9780190944650

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2019

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780190944650.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2020. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 08 August 2020

The Saudi-Iranian Race to Influence the Muslim World

The Saudi-Iranian Race to Influence the Muslim World

Chapter:
(p.111) 7 The Saudi-Iranian Race to Influence the Muslim World
Source:
Cold War in the Islamic World
Author(s):

Dilip Hiro

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190944650.003.0007

Saudi Arabia backed the Islamization drive by Pakistan’s military ruler General Zia ul Haq, a Sunni. Its official aid to his government was supplemented by contributions from Islamic charities, foundations, mosque collections, and royal princes. When Haq issued a decree in July 1980 for the compulsory collection of religiously enjoined tax of zakat, to be used as charity by the state, Shia leaders protested. They argued that they were required to pay one-fifth of their trading profits to a grand ayatollah of their choice. Haq issued an exemption for Shias. But he and the military’s Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) directorate encouraged radical elements in the Society of Scholars of Islam organization to form a militantly Sunni group, Sipah-e-Sahaba. It secured additional funding from Riyadh’s General Intelligence Directorate. After igniting anti-Shia riots in Lahore in 1986, it started killing prominent Shias. Militant Shias formed Soldiers of Muhammad group to commit tit-for-tat assassinations. The killing of the Iranian Counsel General in Lahore highlighted the Saudi-Iranian proxy war. In Afghanistan, when Moscow intervened militarily in December 1979, Khomeini condemned it. Iran implemented its own anti-Soviet campaign in Afghanistan while staying clear of the US-Saudi-Pakistani jihad against the Soviet-backed regime in Kabul.

Keywords:   Zia ul Haq, Islamization of Pakistan, Pakistani Shia protest, ISI directorate, Sipah-e-Sahaba, Soldiers of Muhammad, Anti-Shia riots, Soviets in Afghanistan, Anti-Soviet jihad

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .