During the Progressive Era, nonprofit organizations were the basis for child welfare, promoting the creation of the Children’s Bureau. Title IV of the Social Security Act established that the government would provide cash benefits and social services for poor children. The absence of rigorous research in child welfare contributed to disproportionality in care, accounting for Jane Crow. Varied funding match rates contributed to elaborate fiscal arrangements between state and federal governments as well as incentives to place children in foster care. Yet, the Perry Preschool project, the Nurse-Family Partnership, and the Abecedarian Project emerged, demonstrating the value of field experiments.
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