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Towards A Westphalia for the Middle East - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Towards A Westphalia for the Middle East

Patrick Milton, Michael Axworthy, and Brendan Simms


It was the original forever war, which went on interminably, fueled by religious fanaticism, personal ambition, fear of hegemony, and communal suspicion. It dragged in all the neighboring powers. It was punctuated by repeated failed ceasefires. It inflicted suffering beyond belief and generated waves of refugees. No, this is not Syria today, but the Thirty Years' War (1618-48), which turned Germany and much of central Europe into a disaster zone. The Thirty Years' War is often cited as a parallel in discussions of the Middle East. The Peace of Westphalia, which ended the conflict in 1648, has ... More

Keywords: Middle East security, Peace of Westphalia, Thirty Years War, Syria war, Yemen war, Iraq war, Geopolitics, International Relations, Peace studies

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2019 Print ISBN-13: 9780190947897
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: June 2019 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780190947897.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Patrick Milton, author
University of Cambridge

Michael Axworthy, author
University of Exeter

Brendan Simms, author
University of Cambridge