Chapter 7 asks who will meet the growing demand for long-term care services as the proportion of care-dependent older adults increases. It explores meeting demand by relying on family caregivers and migrant workers and raises justice concerns with each related to respect for caregiver dignity. Dignity violations arise for family caregivers in both Confucian-influenced societies, which stress filial piety, and Western societies, which emphasize individual autonomy. Chapter 7 argues that families are subject to justice principles and defends feminist views on families, which regard just family structures as necessary for a just state. Hiring low-wage migrant workers from poor nations to support family caregiving also raises justice concerns. When care moves across borders, forging global care chains between nations, the conditions in which migrant caregivers live and work often fail to uphold dignity. Without safeguards to avoid bait-and-switch tactics and protect fundamental human dignities, migrant work violates justice principles.
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