Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Mark TwainPreacher, Prophet, and Social Philosopher$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Gary Scott Smith

Print publication date: 2021

Print ISBN-13: 9780192894922

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2021

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780192894922.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 October 2021

The 1860s

The 1860s

Journalism, a Pilgrimage, and Courtship

Chapter:
(p.33) 3 The 1860s
Source:
Mark Twain
Author(s):

Gary Scott Smith

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780192894922.003.0003

During the 1860s, Twain worked as a journalist in Virginia City, Nevada, and San Francisco and traveled to Europe and the Middle East (most notably Palestine) on an excursion with a group of Americans, which enabled him to write his best-selling Innocents Abroad. Twain met Olivia (Livy) Langdon through her brother, a fellow traveler. His courtship of the religiously devout Livy prompted Twain to reassess his relationship with God and his understanding of Christianity, prayer, and Providence and to declare himself to be a Christian. During this decade, Twain developed friendships with several ministers, battled depression, and struggled to determine his vocation. He also strove to adopt Eastern mores and conventional ethical practices and reinvent himself as a Christian husband who could provide financial security and spiritual guidance for his family. Scholars debate whether his conversion was genuine, self-deluded, or fabricated to please his future wife and her parents.

Keywords:   Olivia Langdon, Innocents Abroad, prayer, Providence, Congregationalism, excursion

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .