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Renewable Energy from the OceanA Guide to OTEC$
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William H. Avery and Chih Wu

Print publication date: 1994

Print ISBN-13: 9780195071993

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195071993.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 27 October 2021

Closed-Cycle OTEC Systems

Closed-Cycle OTEC Systems

(p.90) 4 Closed-Cycle OTEC Systems
Renewable Energy from the Ocean

William H. Avery

Chih Wu

Oxford University Press

The Rankine closed cycle is a process in which beat is used to evaporate a fluid at constant pressure in a “boiler” or evaporator, from which the vapor enters a piston engine or turbine and expands doing work. The vapor exhaust then enters a vessel where heat is transferred from the vapor to a cooling fluid, causing the vapor to condense to a liquid, which is pumped back to the evaporator to complete the cycle. A layout of the plantship shown in Fig. 1-2. The basic cycle comprises four steps, as shown in the pressure-volume (p—V) diagram of Fig. 4-1. 1. Starting at point a, heat is added to the working fluid in the boiler until the temperature reaches the boiling point at the design pressure, represented by point b. 2. With further heat addition, the liquid vaporizes at constant temperature and pressure, increasing in volume to point c. 3. The high-pressure vapor enters the piston or turbine and expands adiabatically to point d. 4. The low-pressure vapor enters the condenser and, with heat removal at constant pressure, is cooled and liquefied, returning to its original volume at point a. The work done by the cycle is the area enclosed by the points a,b,c,d,a. This is equal to Hc–Hd, where H is the enthalpy of the fluid at the indicated point. The heat transferred in the process is Hc–Ha Thus the efficiency, defined as the ratio of work to heat used, is: . . . efficiency(η)=Hc–Hd/Hc–Ha (4.1.1) . . . Carnot showed that if the heat-engine cycle was conducted so that equilibrium conditions were maintained in the process, that the efficiency was determined solely by the ratio of the temperatures of the working fluid in the evaporator and the condenser. . . . η=TE–Tc/TE (4.1.2) . . . The maximum Carnot efficiency can be attained only for a cycle in which thermal equilibrium exists in each phase of the process; however, for power to be generated a temperature difference must exist between the working fluid in the evaporator and the warm-water heat source, and between the working fluid in the condenser and the cold-water heat sink.

Keywords:   air conditioning, biofouling, closed-cycle systems, deep ocean mining, efficiency, fresh-water production, hydrogen, land-based plants, mariculture

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