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Anthropology, Space, and Geographic Information Systems$
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Mark Aldenderfer and Herbert D. G. Maschner

Print publication date: 1996

Print ISBN-13: 9780195085754

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195085754.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 17 October 2021

An Analysis of Late-Horizon Settlement Patterns in the Teotihuacan-Temascalapa Basins: A Location-Allocation and GIS-Based Approach

An Analysis of Late-Horizon Settlement Patterns in the Teotihuacan-Temascalapa Basins: A Location-Allocation and GIS-Based Approach

Chapter:
(p.155) 9 An Analysis of Late-Horizon Settlement Patterns in the Teotihuacan-Temascalapa Basins: A Location-Allocation and GIS-Based Approach
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Anthropology, Space, and Geographic Information Systems
Author(s):

Amy J. Ruggles

Richard L. Church

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195085754.003.0012

The general interest of linking GIS capabilities and location-allocation (L-A) techniques to investigate certain spatial problems should be evident. The techniques and the technology are often complementary. A GIS can provide, manage, and display data that L-A models require; in turn, L-A models can enhance GIS analytic capabilities. This combination of information management and analysis should have wide appeal. The technique and technology may be especially wellmatched when one considers many of the special requirements of archaeological applications of L-A models. We intend to investigate and illustrate the value of such a combined approach though the example of a regional settlement analysis of the Late Horizon Basin of Mexico. Geographic information systems are increasingly common in archaeology. Their ability to manage, store, manipulate, and present spatial data is of real value, since the spatial relationship between objects is often an archaeological artifact in its own right. Space is central to both archaeological data (Spaulding 1960; Savage 1990a) and theory (Green 1990). Although GIS may not always offer intrinsically new and different manipulations or analyses of the data, they can make certain techniques easier to apply. There is a wide spectrum of GIS-based modeling applications in archaeology (Allen 1990; Savage 1990a). The anchors of this spectrum range from the use of GIS in the public sector in cultural resource management settings to more research-oriented applications. The strongest development of GIS-based archaeological modeling is probably in the former context. Models developed here are predominantly what Warren (1990) identifies as “inductive” predictive models where patterns in the empirical observations are recognized, usually using statistical methods or probability models. This type of application is usually identified with “site location” modeling (Savage 1990a). As defined, these models do not predict the probable locations of individual sites but rather calculate the probability that a geographic area will contain a site, given its environmental characteristics (Carmichael 1990: 218). The primary role of GIS in many of these applications is to manage and integrate spatial information and feed it to some exterior model.

Keywords:   Aztec Empire, Dendritic marketing pattern, Facility location model, Gabriel graph (GG), Integer programming model, Linear programming (LP) model, Maxcover, Network, Optimization model, P-medianmodel

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