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Biological NMR Spectroscopy$
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John L. Markley and Stanley J. Opella

Print publication date: 1997

Print ISBN-13: 9780195094688

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195094688.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 23 October 2021

Ex Vivo MuEtinuciear NMR Spectroscopy of Perfused, Respiring Rat Brain Slices: Model Studies of Hypoxia, Ischemia, and Excitotoxscit

Ex Vivo MuEtinuciear NMR Spectroscopy of Perfused, Respiring Rat Brain Slices: Model Studies of Hypoxia, Ischemia, and Excitotoxscit

Chapter:
(p.340) 23 Ex Vivo MuEtinuciear NMR Spectroscopy of Perfused, Respiring Rat Brain Slices: Model Studies of Hypoxia, Ischemia, and Excitotoxscit
Source:
Biological NMR Spectroscopy
Author(s):

L. Litt

M.T. Espanol

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195094688.003.0031

We believe there are important roles for in vivo NMR spectroscopy techniques in studies of protection and treatment in stroke. Perhaps the primary utility of in vivo NMR spectroscopy is to establish the relevance of metabolic integrity, intracellular pH, and intracellular energy stores to concurrent changes occurring both at gross physiological levels (e.g., changes in cerebral blood flow, or blood oxygenation), and at microscopic or cellular levels. It has long been known that the brain is exquisitely sensitive to deprivations of oxygen, glucose, and cerebral blood flow. Routine human surgery on a limb takes place every day with tourniquets stopping all blood flow for up to two hours. In contrast, the deprivation of all blood flow to the brain (global ischemia) for approximately 5 minutes can result in severe, permanent brain damage. Research has gone on for more than 30 years to understand why the brain’s revival time is so much shorter, and to discover brain biochemical interventions that might dramatically extend the brain’s intolerance beyond 5 minutes, and therefore be relevant to protection and treatment of stroke. (Kogure and Hossmann, 1985; 1993) Stroke, defined as a permanent neurologic deficit arising from the death of brain cells, kills ∼ 150,000 people in the U.S.A. each year, and is the third leading cause of death (Feinleib et al., 1993). It is the next malady to escape, once one has dodged death from cardiovascular disease and cancer. Many, if not most, U.S.A. stroke victims will receive neurological clinical care not substantially different from what was provided 30 years ago. Most stroke patients will be put in intensive care units where blood pressure will be regulated and kept in a “safe” range, with the body given supportive care and the brain given an opportunity to heal itself. The problem of stroke is actually quite complex because there are several different kinds of stroke (ischemic, hemorrhagic, etc.), and because numerous systemic physiological factors are of relevance. Nevertheless, exciting advances in brain biochemistry suggest that stroke therapy and prophylaxis are likely to improve dramatically in the near future (Zivin and Choi, 1991).

Keywords:   ATP, FBP, PCr, Pi, brain, excitotoxicity, hypoxia, in vivo NMR, ischemia, stroke

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