Second Moments of Rain
Second Moments of Rain
The first part of this chapter presents a description of the GATE rain rate data (Polyak and North, 1995), its two-dimensional spectral and correlation characteristics, and multivariate models. Such descriptions have made it possible to show the concentration of significant power along the frequency axis in the spatial-temporal spectra; to detect a diurnal cycle (a range of variation of which is about 3.4 to 5.4 mm/hr); to study the anisotropy (as the result of the distinction between the north-south and east-west transport of rain) of spatial rain rate fields; to evaluate the scales of the distinction between second-moment estimates associated with ground and satellite samples; to determine the appropriate spatial and temporal scales of the simple linear stochastic models fitted to averaged rain rate fields; and to evaluate the mean advection velocity of the rain rate fluctuations. The second part of this chapter (adapted from Polyak et al., 1994) is mainly devoted to the diffusion of rainfall (from PRE-STORM experiment) by associating the multivariate autoregressive model parameters and the diffusion equation coefficients. This analysis led to the use of rain data to estimate rain advection velocity as well as other coefficients of the diffusion equation of the corresponding field. The results obtained can be used in the ground truth problem for TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite observations, for comparison with corresponding estimates of other sources of data (TOGA-COARE, or simulated by physical, models), for generating multiple rain samples of any size, and in some other areas of rain data analysis and modeling. For many years, the GATE data base has served as the richest and most accurate source of rain observations. Dozens of articles presenting the results of the GATE rain rate data analysis and modeling have been published, and more continue to be released. Recently, a new, valuable set of rain data was produced as a result of the TOGA-COARE experiment. In a few years, it will be possible to obtain satellite (TRMM) rain information, and a rain statistical description will be needed in the analysis of the observations obtained on an irregular spatial and temporal grid.
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