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Any Child Can Read Better$
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Harvey S. Wiener

Print publication date: 1996

Print ISBN-13: 9780195102185

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195102185.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 02 March 2021

The Crystal Ball: Predicting Outcomes And Drawing Conclusions

The Crystal Ball: Predicting Outcomes And Drawing Conclusions

Chapter:
9 The Crystal Ball: Predicting Outcomes And Drawing Conclusions
Source:
Any Child Can Read Better
Author(s):

Harvey S. Wiener

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195102185.003.0013

Mature readers always reach beyond the text they are reading. They know unconsciously how to interact with print, regularly uncovering new meanings and making inferential leaps that connect with other thoughts, id s, or experiences. As you saw in the last chapter's discussion of inference, a piece of writing almost always means more than it says, and the awake reader constantly fleshes out suggestions, nuances, and implications to enrich the reading experience. In this and the next chapter, I want to talk with you about some high-order inference skills: predicting outcomes, drawing conclusions, and generalizing. These three skills work together because they involve the reader's ability to follow a trail begun but not completed by the words on the page. The three skills all relate to inferential reasoning in that they require readers to evolve meanings derived from the prose. Remember our definition of inference? When we infer, we uncover information that is unstated—hidden, if you will. The information expands upon the writer's words. Using what the writer tells us, we plug into the complex circuitry of ideas by adducing what's not exactly stated in what we're reading. We dig out meanings, shaping and expanding the writers ideas. Predicting, concluding, and generalizing move us toward wider and deeper meanings in what we read. Let's take them up one at a time. An engaged reader regularly looks ahead to what will happen next—what will be the next event in a chronological sequence, what will be the next point in a logical progression, what will be the next thread in the analytic fabric the writer is weaving. We base our predictions on prior events or issues in the narrative or analytical sequence. Making correct predictions involves our ability to see causes and effects, stimuli and results, actions and consequences. Your child already knows how to predict outcomes. Right from her earliest days in the crib, she has used important analytical skills instinctively.

Keywords:   Drawing conclusions, Predicting outcome

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