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Biophysics of ComputationInformation Processing in Single Neurons$
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Christof Koch

Print publication date: 1998

Print ISBN-13: 9780195104912

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195104912.001.0001

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Unconventional Computing

Unconventional Computing

Chapter:
(p.452) 20 Unconventional Computing
Source:
Biophysics of Computation
Author(s):

Christof Koch

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195104912.003.0026

As discussed in the introduction to this book, any (bio)physical mechanism that transforms some physical variable, such as the electrical potential across the membrane, in such a way that it can be mapped onto a meaningful formal mathematical operation, such as delayand- correlate or convolution, can be treated as a computation. Traditionally only Vm, spike trains, and the firing rate f(t) have been thought to play this role in the computations performed by the nervous system. Due to the recent and widespread usage of high-resolution calcium-dependent fluorescent dyes, the concentration of free intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in presynaptic terminals, dendrites, and cell bodies has been promoted into the exalted rank of a variable that can act as a short-term memory and that can be manipulated using buffers, calcium-dependent enzymes, and diffusion in ways that can be said to instantiate specific computations. But why stop here? Why not consider the vast number of signaling molecules that are localized to specific intra- or extracellular compartments to instantiate specific computations that can act over particular spatial and temporal time scales? And what about the peptides and hormones that are released into large areas of the brain or that circulate in the bloodstream? In this penultimate chapter, we will acquaint the reader with several examples of computations that use such unconventional means. The computation in question constitutes a molecular switch that stores a few bits of information at each of the thousands of synapses on a typical cortical cell. In order to describe its principle of operation, it will be necessary to introduce the reader to some basic concepts in biochemistry. The ability of individual synapses to potentially store analog variables is important enough that this modest intellectual investment will pay off. (For an introduction to biochemistry, consult Stryer, 1995).

Keywords:   Autophosphorylation, Carbon monoxide, Diffusion, Enzymes, Firing rate, Gain control, Hormones, Kinases, Learning

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