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Animal Anatomy for ArtistsThe Elements of Form$
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Eliot Goldfinger

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195142143

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195142143.001.0001

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Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Muscles (Numerous Views)

Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Muscles (Numerous Views)

(p.112) Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Muscles (Numerous Views)
Animal Anatomy for Artists

Eliot Goldfinger

Oxford University Press

Horse (equid) characteristics: One digit per foot ending in symmetrical, horny hoof. Walks on very tip of toe. Elongated skull; large lower jaw. Large upper and lower incisors. In side view, neck widens as it approaches shoulder (elongated triangular shape). Mane present, upright on wild species. Tuft of hair often present on forehead (“forelock”). Rear profile of neck straight or arched. Pointed, upright ears. Long, slender limbs. Humerus and femur short; lower portion of limb long, especially forefoot and hind foot (adaptation for speed by shifting weight of muscles mass upward, close to the body). Ulna and fibula reduced and fused to adjacent, weight-supporting bones. Femur has projecting third trochanter on outer side of shaft for attachment of the gluteus superficialis muscle. Barrel-like trunk. Long hair on tail. In same group as tapirs and rhinoceroses.

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