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Animal Anatomy for ArtistsThe Elements of Form$
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Eliot Goldfinger

Print publication date: 2004

Print ISBN-13: 9780195142143

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195142143.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 08 December 2021

Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Superficial Muscles (Side View)

Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Superficial Muscles (Side View)

(p.152) Four-Legged Animals Skeleton & Superficial Muscles (Side View)
Animal Anatomy for Artists

Eliot Goldfinger

Oxford University Press

Domestic cat characteristics: Rounded skull, short snout. Long whiskers. Large canines, small incisors. Cheek teeth with sharp edges for shearing. Large temporalis and masseter muscles of skull. Eyes shifted slightly forward for binocular vision. Large eyes in domestic cats. Constricted pupil in domestic cats is vertical; round in large cats. Top edge of scapula usually higher than tips of thoracic vertebrae. Small rib cage. Five digits on front limb (thumb reduced); four digits on hind limb—may have very reduced first metatarsal or reduced first digit with claw (dewclaw). Walks on toes. Sharp, curved, retractile claws (which keeps them sharp—they don’t walk on them). Forearm rotates (pronates/supinates). Hairy tail. Very flexible body. Spine (back) straight or arched. Can walk in crouched position, as when stalking prey. Bear characteristics: Large, powerful body; powerful limbs appear relatively short. Rear feet wide. Walks on sole and heel of rear foot and usually on digits of front foot. Five digits per limb with long, curved, nonretractile claws. Front claws longer than rear claws. Large head, small eyes. Small, round, erect, furry ears. Large canines; flat, grinding molars. Short tail. Arched back, high shoulder. Grizzly has most prominent shoulder hump and dished, slightly concave face (in profile). Can have very thick layer of fur. Grizzly and brown bear belong to the same species, but differ in geographical range and size. The giant panda is now considered to be a member of the bear family, not the raccoon family.

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