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Comprehensive Handbook of Childhood Cancer and Sickle Cell DiseaseA Biopsychosocial Approach$
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Ronald T. Brown

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780195169850

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195169850.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 17 June 2021

Health Promotion and Primary Prevention of Cancer

Health Promotion and Primary Prevention of Cancer

(p.415) 22 Health Promotion and Primary Prevention of Cancer
Comprehensive Handbook of Childhood Cancer and Sickle Cell Disease

Dawn K. Wilson

Sarah F. Griffin

Oxford University Press

There are a number of important preventable risk factors that have been associated with the prevalence and incidence of various types of cancers. These risk factors include sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, obesity, sun exposure, and tobacco use (Friedenreich & Orenstein, 2002; Healthy People 2010, 1998; Pappo, 2003; Slattery, Schumacher, West, Robison, & French, 1990). These risk factors are modifiable, and early prevention in childhood may reduce the likelihood of developing cancers such as melanoma and lung, colon, breast, prostate, and endometrial cancers (IARC Working Group, 2002). For example, according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, between one fourth and one third of cancer cases may be attributed to the combined effects of obesity and physical inactivity (IARC Working Group, 2002), thus promoting both weight control and physical activity in youths may be beneficial for preventing cancer. Therefore, the identification of multiple risk factors that may be linked to cancer prevention that could be incorporated into prevention programs may be an effective approach for cancer prevention in youth. A social ecological model is presented in this chapter as a framework for understanding multilevel strategies for promoting healthy lifestyles to prevent cancer in youths (Bronfenbrenner, 1979, 1992; Wilson & Evans, 2003). According to the ecological model, health behavior is affected by intrapersonal, social, cultural, and physical environmental variables. A social ecological framework (McLeroy, Bibeau, Steckler, & Glanz, 1988) conceptualizes health behavior (e.g., physical activity) as affected by multiple levels of influence. Based on this social ecological model, five levels of influence are specified: (a) individual influences (e.g., biological and psychosocial); (b) interpersonal influences (e.g., family, peers); (c) institutional factors (e.g., school, work sites); (d) community factors (e.g., relationship among organizations, institutions, and social networks); and (e) public policy (e.g., laws and policies at the local, state, national, and international levels). In this model, health behaviors such as physical activity, nutrition, sun exposure, and tobacco use are conceptualized as a function of the interaction of individual, family, and peer influences and school, community, mass media, and public policy influences.

Keywords:   community interventions, melanoma, nutrition guidelines, physical activity interventions, school-based behavioral interventions

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