Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Chemistry in Quantitative LanguageFundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195367997

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195367997.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 28 November 2021

Liquids and Solids

Liquids and Solids

Chapter:
12 (p.147) Liquids and Solids
Source:
Chemistry in Quantitative Language
Author(s):

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195367997.003.0016

The atoms or molecules in a liquid have enough kinetic energy to partially overcome the forces of attraction between them. Therefore, they are in constant random motion (as in a gas) but they are still relatively close together. However, they are not as tightly packed, or as well ordered, as in a solid. There is not as much free space in a liquid as in a gas. The atoms or molecules may aggregate together to form chains or rings that readily move relative to one another; this gives a liquid its fluid (flow) properties. Liquids generally occur as compounds. For example, water, ethanol, and carbon tetrachloride are liquids at room temperature. However, a few elements are also liquids at room temperature: bromine, cesium, gallium, mercury, and rubidium. A liquid is characterized by the following physical properties: boiling point and freezing point, density, compressibility, surface tension, and viscosity. These properties of a liquid are greatly influenced by the strength of its intermolecular forces. In summary: • Liquids have definite volume but no definite shape. They take on the shape of their containers. • Liquids are characterized by low compressibility, low rigidity, and high density relative to gases. • Liquids diffuse through other liquids. • Liquids can vaporize into the space above them and produce a vapor pressure. Polar molecules possess an electric dipole moment, μ, defined as the product of the magnitude of the partial charges Q+ and Q− on the molecule and the distance r separating the charges. In mathematical terms, it is given by the equation: μ = Qr The unit for μ is debyes (D), and 1 D = 3.336×10−30 coulomb meter (C-m). No interatomic bonds are completely ionic. Knowing the dipole moment of a compound, though, lets us differentiate ionic from covalent bonds by calculating the percent ionic character for the bonds. The percent ionic character of a bond is found by comparing the measured dipole moment of the molecule of the type A−B with the calculated dipole moment for the 100% ionized compound A+B−.

Keywords:   Bragg equation, Clausius–Clapeyron equation, Miller indexes of a crystal, coordination number, ionic crystal structures, x-ray diffraction

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .