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Chemistry in Quantitative LanguageFundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations$
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Christopher O. Oriakhi

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195367997

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195367997.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 October 2021

Ideal Solutions and Colligative Properties

Ideal Solutions and Colligative Properties

15 (p.215) Ideal Solutions and Colligative Properties
Chemistry in Quantitative Language

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Oxford University Press

Colligative properties of solutions are those that depend only on the number of solute particles (molecules or ions) in the solution rather than on their chemical or physical properties. The colligative properties that can be measured experimentally include: • Vapor pressure depression • Boiling point elevation • Freezing point depression • Osmotic pressure Noncolligative properties, on the other hand, depend on the identity of the dissolved species and the solvent. Examples include solubility, surface tension, and viscosity. The addition of a solute to a solvent typically causes the vapor pressure of the solvent (above the resulting solution) to be lower than the vapor pressure above the pure solvent. As the concentration of the solute in the solution changes, so does the vapor pressure of the solvent above a solution. The vapor pressure of a solution of a nonvolatile solute is always lower than that of the pure solvent. For example, an aqueous solution of NaCl has a lower vapor pressure than pure water at the same temperature. The addition of solute to a pure solvent depresses the vapor pressure of the solvent. This observation, first made by Raoult, is now commonly known as Raoult’s law. The law states that the lowering of vapor pressure of a solution containing non-volatile solute is proportional to the mole fraction of the solute.

Keywords:   boiling point elevation, colligative properties, freezing point depression, ideal solutions

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