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Chemistry in Quantitative LanguageFundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations$
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Christopher O. Oriakhi

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195367997

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195367997.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 June 2021

Chemical Kinetics

Chemical Kinetics

Chapter:
16 (p.229) Chemical Kinetics
Source:
Chemistry in Quantitative Language
Author(s):

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195367997.003.0020

Chemical kinetics is the aspect of chemistry that deals with the speed or rate of chemical reactions and the mechanisms by which they occur. The rate of a chemical reaction is a measure of how fast the reaction occurs, and it is defined as the change in the amount or concentration of a reactant or product per unit time. The mechanism of a reaction is the series of steps or processes through which it occurs. Most experimental techniques for determining reaction rates involve measuring of the rate of disappearance of a reactant, or the rate of appearance of a product. For a reaction in which the reactant Y is converted to some products: Rate = Concentration of Y at time t2 −Concentration of Y at time t1/t2 −t1 Rate = Δ [Y]/ Δt where [Y] indicates the molar concentration of the reactant of interest, and Δ refers to a change in the given amount. Rate for a reactant, by this definition, is a negative number. For a product, it is positive. The value of the rate at a particular time is known as the instantaneous rate and will be different from the average rate. Its value can be obtained from the plot of concentration (mol/L) vs. time (s) as the slope of a line tangent to the curve at a given point. Consider the following kinetic data for the decomposition of N2O5 to gaseous NO2 and O2 at 40°C (see table 16-3). A plot of [N2O5] vs. time is shown in figure 16-2. From this curve, the instantaneous rate of reaction at any time t can be obtained from the slope of the tangent to the curve. This corresponds to the value of Δ [N2O5]/ Δt for the tangent at a given instant. The instantaneous rate at the beginning of the reaction (t =0) is known as the initial rate.

Keywords:   catalyst, collision theory of reaction rates, energy of activation, order of a reaction, rate constant of a reaction (k)

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