Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Chemistry in Quantitative LanguageFundamentals of General Chemistry Calculations$
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Print publication date: 2009

Print ISBN-13: 9780195367997

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195367997.001.0001

Show Summary Details
Page of

PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 18 October 2021

Ionic Equilibria and pH

Ionic Equilibria and pH

18 (p.281) Ionic Equilibria and pH
Chemistry in Quantitative Language

Christopher O. Oriakhi

Oxford University Press

Water is a weak acid. At 25°C, pure water ionizes to form a hydrogen ion and a hydroxide ion: H2O ⇋ H+ + OH− Hydration of the proton (hydrogen ion) to form hydroxonium ion is ignored here for simplicity. This equilibrium lies mainly to the left; that is, the ionization happens only to a slight extent. We know that 1 L of pure water contains 55.6 mol. Of this, only 10−7 mol actually ionizes into equal amounts of [H+] and [OH−], i.e., [H+] = [OH−] = 10−7M Because these concentrations are equal, pure water is neither acidic nor basic. A solution is acidic if it contains more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions. Similarly, a solution is basic if it contains more hydroxide ions than hydrogen ions. Acidity is defined as the concentration of hydrated protons (hydrogen ions); basicity is the concentration of hydroxide ions. Pure water ionizes at 25°C to produce 10−7 M of [H+] and 10−7 M of [OH−]. The product Kw = [H+]×[OH−] = 10−7 M×10−7 M= 10−14 M is known as the ionic product of water. Note that this is simply the equilibrium expression for the dissociation of water. This equation holds for any dilute aqueous solution of acid, base, and salt. The pH of a solution is defined as the negative logarithm of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions. The lower the pH, the greater the acidity of the solution. Mathematically: pH=−log10[ H+] or −log10[H3O+] This can also be written as: pH = log10 1/[H+] or log10 1/[H3O+] Taking the antilogarithm of both sides and rearranging gives: [H+] = 10−pH This equation can be used to calculate the hydrogen ion concentration when the pH of the solution is known.

Keywords:   Henderson–Hasselbalch equation, buffer capacity (β), common-ion effect, equivalence point, polyprotic acid, polyprotic base

Oxford Scholarship Online requires a subscription or purchase to access the full text of books within the service. Public users can however freely search the site and view the abstracts and keywords for each book and chapter.

Please, subscribe or login to access full text content.

If you think you should have access to this title, please contact your librarian.

To troubleshoot, please check our FAQs , and if you can't find the answer there, please contact us .