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The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements$
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George K. Schweitzer and Lester L. Pesterfield

Print publication date: 2010

Print ISBN-13: 9780195393354

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780195393354.001.0001

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The V–Cr–Mn Group

The V–Cr–Mn Group

Chapter:
(p.334) 14 The V–Cr–Mn Group
Source:
The Aqueous Chemistry of the Elements
Author(s):

George K. Schweitzer

Lester L. Pesterfield

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780195393354.003.0016

The three elements to be treated in this chapter (V, Cr, Mn) are the third, fourth, and fifth members of the first transition series. The first two members (Sc, Ti) have been treated in previous chapters (Chapters 12 and 13). The ten elements of this first transition series (Sc through Zn) are characterized by electron activity in the 3d–4s levels. All elements in the 3d transition series are metals, and many of their compounds tend to be colored as a result of unpaired electrons. Most of the elements have a strong tendency to form complex ions due to participation of the d electrons in bonding. Since both the 4s and the 3d electrons are active, most of the elements show a considerable variety of oxidation states (Sc and Zn being exceptions). For the first five (Sc through Mn), the maximum oxidation number is the total number of electrons in the 4s and 3d levels. Complexing is often so strong that the most stable oxidation state for simple compounds may differ from that for complex compounds. a. E–pH diagram. The E–pH diagram in Figure 14.1 shows V in oxidation states of 0, II, III, IV, and V. This diagram, which involves vanadium at 10−3.0 M is somewhat oversimplified in that there are some isopolyanions present in the 4–6 pH regions. The prevalence of isopolyanions increases as the V concentration increases. This is illustrated in Figure 14.2 which has V at 10−1.0 M. Further, the cations V+2, V+3, VO+2, and VO2+ are probably aquated to satisfy a coordination number of six, and the V(OH)3 may actually be hydrated V2O3. Note that the soluble solution chemistries of V(IV) and V(V) are dominated by the VO+2 and VO2+ complex ions. Three of these cations (III, IV, V) are subject to hydrolysis, the processes setting in around pH values of just under 3, 3, and 2. The E–pH diagram indicates that elemental V is very active, but a thin coat of oxide protects it from all except strong action.

Keywords:   extraction, health aspects, hydroxides, occurrence, oxides, redox reactions

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