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Calculating Race – Racial Discrimination in Risk Assessment - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Calculating Race: Racial Discrimination in Risk Assessment

Benjamin Wiggins


Calculating Race: Racial Discrimination in Risk Assessment presents the historical relationship between statistical risk assessment and race in the United States. It illustrates how, through a reliance on the variable of race, actuarial science transformed the nature of racism and, in turn, helped usher racial disparities in wealth, incarceration, and housing from the nineteenth century into the twentieth. The monograph begins by investigating the development of statistical risk assessment explicitly based on race in the late-nineteenth-century life insurance industry. It then traces how such ... More

Keywords: race, racism, risk assessment, actuarial science, insurance, incarceration, housing policy, algorithms, United States, American history

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780197504000
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780197504000.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Benjamin Wiggins, author
Affiliate Assistant Professor of History, University of Minnesota

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