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Attributing KnowledgeWhat It Means to Know Something$
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Jody Azzouni

Print publication date: 2020

Print ISBN-13: 9780197508817

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780197508817.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 28 November 2021



(p.1) Introduction
Attributing Knowledge

Jody Azzouni

Oxford University Press

Part 1 of the introduction describes the motivations and approach of the book, then summarizes the contents of the book chapter by chapter. Part 2 provides the linguistic and methodological underpinnings of the analysis of the word “know” and related epistemic words that are relied on throughout the book. Standard methods for gathering data in linguistics are described and analyzed. It’s shown why characterizing linguistic evidence practices as “the method of cases” is misleading, and the limitations of social-psychological questionnaire tools are explained. The bearing of lexical semantics on questions of when usages are metaphorical, when they are literal, when ambiguous, and when polysemous are given. The importance of retraction phenomena—how and when speakers withdraw usages under pressure—is described; and as an illustration, it’s shown that “know” is factive. The important distinction between the syntactic/semantic structure of a word and the role it is put to by speakers is described.

Keywords:   ambiguity, common ground, factivity, lexical semantics, metaphor, polysemy, retraction, social roles, truth, xphilosophy

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