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Attributing Knowledge – What It Means to Know Something - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Attributing Knowledge: What It Means to Know Something

Jody Azzouni


The word “know” is revealed as vague, applicable to fallible agents, factive, and criterion-transcendent. It is invariant in its meaning across contexts and invariant relative to different agents. Only purely epistemic properties affect its correct application—not the interests of agents or those who attribute the word to agents. These properties enable “know” to be applied correctly—as it routinely is—to cognitive agents ranging from sophisticated human knowers, who engage in substantial metacognition, to various animals, who know much less and do much less, if any, metacognition, to nonconsc ... More

Keywords: dogmatism paradox, fallibility, invariantism, justification, KK thesis, knowledge closure, knowledge norms, metacognition, Moore’s paradox, the given

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2020 Print ISBN-13: 9780197508817
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: October 2020 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780197508817.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Jody Azzouni, author
Professor of Philosophy, Tufts University