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Dead Zones – The Loss of Oxygen from Rivers, Lakes, Seas, and the Ocean - Oxford Scholarship Online
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Dead Zones: The Loss of Oxygen from Rivers, Lakes, Seas, and the Ocean

David L. Kirchman


This book explores the many rivers, lakes, and oceans that are losing oxygen. Aquatic habitats with little dissolved oxygen are called dead zones because nothing can live there except some microbes. The number and size of dead zones are increasing worldwide. The book shows that oxygen loss causes fish kills, devastates bottom-dwelling biota, reduces biological diversity, and rearranges aquatic food webs. In the 19th century in rich countries and in poor regions today, dead zones are accompanied by waterborne diseases that kill thousands of people. The open oceans are losing oxygen because of c ... More

Keywords: dead zone, fish kills, eutrophication, harmful algal blooms, nitrogen pollution, fertilizers, deoxygenation

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2021 Print ISBN-13: 9780197520376
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: February 2021 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780197520376.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

David L. Kirchman, author
Maxwell P. and Mildred H. Harrington Professor of Marine Studies, University of Delaware