Jump to ContentJump to Main Navigation
Four Internets – Data, Geopolitics, and the Governance of Cyberspace - Oxford Scholarship Online
Users without a subscription are not able to see the full content.

Four Internets: Data, Geopolitics, and the Governance of Cyberspace

Kieron O'Hara and Wendy Hall


The book describes the Internet, and how Internet governance prevents it fragmenting into a ‘Splinternet’. Four opposing ideologies about how data flows around the network have become prominent because they are (a) implemented by technical standards, and (b) backed by influential geopolitical entities. Each of these specifies an ‘Internet’, described in relation to its implementation by a specific geopolitical entity. The four Internets of the title are: the Silicon Valley Open Internet, developed by pioneers of the Internet in the 1960s, based on principles of openness and efficient dataflow; ... More

Keywords: Internet, Internet governance, geopolitics, data, Splinternet, openness, United States, China, European Union, Russia

Bibliographic Information

Print publication date: 2021 Print ISBN-13: 9780197523681
Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: July 2021 DOI:10.1093/oso/9780197523681.001.0001


Affiliations are at time of print publication.

Kieron O'Hara, author
Emeritus Fellow in Electronics and Computer Science, University of Southampton

Wendy Hall, author
Regius Professor of Computer Science, University of Southampton

Show Summary Details

subscribe or login to access all content.