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Chemical Dynamics in Condensed PhasesRelaxation, Transfer and Reactions in Condensed Molecular Systems$
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Abraham Nitzan

Print publication date: 2006

Print ISBN-13: 9780198529798

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: November 2020

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198529798.001.0001

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PRINTED FROM OXFORD SCHOLARSHIP ONLINE (oxford.universitypressscholarship.com). (c) Copyright Oxford University Press, 2021. All Rights Reserved. An individual user may print out a PDF of a single chapter of a monograph in OSO for personal use. date: 05 December 2021

Introduction To Liquids

Introduction To Liquids

Chapter:
(p.175) 5 Introduction To Liquids
Source:
Chemical Dynamics in Condensed Phases
Author(s):

Abraham Nitzan

Publisher:
Oxford University Press
DOI:10.1093/oso/9780198529798.003.0010

The statistical mechanics of atomic motion in gases and solids have convenient starting points. For gases it is the ideal gas limit where intermolecular interactions are disregarded. In solids, the equilibrium structure is pre-determined, the dynamics at normal temperature is characterized by small amplitude motions about this structure and the starting point for the description of such motions is the harmonic approximation that makes it possible to describe the system in terms of noninteracting normal modes (phonons). Liquids are considerably more difficult to describe on the atomic/molecular level: their densities are of the same order as those of the corresponding solids, however, they lack symmetry and rigidity and, with time, their particles execute large-scale motions. Expansion about a noninteracting particle picture is therefore not an option for liquids. On the other hand, with the exclusion of low molecular mass liquids such as hydrogen and helium, and of liquid metals where some properties are dominated by the conduction electrons, classical mechanics usually provides a reasonable approximation for liquids at and above room temperature. For such systems concepts from probability theory (see Section 1.1.1) will be seen to be quite useful. This chapter introduces the reader to basic concepts in the theory of classical liquids. It should be emphasized that the theory itself is general and can be applied to classical solids and gases as well, as exemplified by the derivation of the virial expansion is Section 5.6 below. We shall limit ourselves only to concepts and methods needed for the rest of our discussion of dynamical processes in such environments.

Keywords:   Lennard–Jones potential, X-ray scattering, collision diameter, ensemble average, liquids, pair distribution function, radial distribution functions, second virial coefficient, time average

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