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The Biology of Lakes and Ponds$
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Christer Brönmark and Lars-Anders Hansson

Print publication date: 2017

Print ISBN-13: 9780198713593

Published to Oxford Scholarship Online: December 2017

DOI: 10.1093/oso/9780198713593.001.0001

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The Abiotic Frame and Adaptations to Cope with Abiotic Constraints

The Abiotic Frame and Adaptations to Cope with Abiotic Constraints

(p.7) 2 The Abiotic Frame and Adaptations to Cope with Abiotic Constraints
The Biology of Lakes and Ponds

Christer Brönmark

Lars-Anders Hansson

Oxford University Press

This chapter draws up the abiotic frame for organisms set by the physical and chemical properties of a specific ecosystem. The abiotic frame is a combination of several features, including wind, turbulence, temperature and light, but also by nutrient status, pH and oxygen supply. Based on this abiotic frame, large-scale movements, as well as stratification phenomena of lakes are discussed. The importance of the surrounding land, that is, the catchment area, is stressed; specifically, how the catchment area may strongly affect the physical and chemical features of the lake or pond. In addition, this chapter explains how lakes and ponds have been, and still are, formed in the landscape and how organisms handle the abiotic frame.

Keywords:   Abiotic, Nutrient, pH, catchment, wind, turbulence, light, oxygen, temperature, photosynthesis

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