Chapter 12 of Performing Music Research considers statistical tests designed for use in experimental, survey, and observational research to compare differences between groups. It describes three kinds of test and their variations: t-tests, which are used to identify differences between two groups on one dependent variable; analyses of variance (ANOVAs), which are used to test effects by identifying differences between two or more groups on one dependent variable; and multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs), which are used to test effects by identifying differences between two or more groups on two or more dependent variables. For each test, the chapter sets out an example of the situations in which it can be used, provides guidance on conducting it using standard statistical software, and advises on how best to interpret and report its results.
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